Diluting small molecule organic semiconductor hole transport materials with Teflon AF (TAF) dramatically increases their thermal/morphological stability while counterintuitively also increasing the current density in hole-only diodes. Here, we explore the origin of this current enhancement in co-evaporated blends of TAF and N,N′-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPD) and find that it results from improved hole injection and not from a mobility enhancement due to semiconductor dilution effects. Whereas electroabsorption measurements indicate that an interface dipole shift of up to 0.5 eV (depending on TAF concentration) aides hole injection at the indium-tin-oxide anode, time-of-flight and temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements show that the mobility of 25 vol% TAF:NPD blends decreases by roughly an order of magnitude relative to neat NPD despite having slightly lower energetic disorder. For comparison, diluting with 25 vol% high density polyethylene achieves a similar reduction in energetic disorder but only decreases the mobility by a factor of two. These results highlight the tradeoff between reducing energetic disorder and frustrating percolation in diluted organic semiconductors, and represent a step toward thermally-evaporated polymer-small molecule composites that maintain high mobility while offering improved morphological stability and lower refractive index for organic light emitting diodes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Materials Chemistry
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering