Electrochemical deposition of alkaline-earth elements (Sr and Ba) from LiCl-KCl-SrCl2-BaCl2 solution using a liquid bismuth electrode

Timothy Lichtenstein, Thomas P. Nigl, Nathan D. Smith, Hojong Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Electrochemical deposition of Sr and Ba into liquid Bi metal was investigated in LiCl-KCl-SrCl2-BaCl2 electrolytes at 500 °C as a means to separate stable alkaline-earth ions from the molten salts (eutectic LiCl-KCl) utilized for recycling used nuclear fuel, by leveraging the strong chemical interactions between alkaline-earth metals and liquid Bi. The liquid Bi electrodes were subjected to cathodic discharge up to 270 C g–1 at a constant current density of 50 mA cm−2 in eutectic LiCl-KCl with the addition of 5 mol% total of SrCl2 and/or BaCl2. The use of Bi resulted in complex electrode reactions, leading to co-deposition of Sr (2.0–6.5 mol%), Ba (4.1–12.8 mol%), and Li (5.9–16.2 mol%), and coulombic efficiencies of 63–67% were achieved. The observed co-deposition was also supported via thermodynamic analyses of electrode potentials by incorporating the experimentally determined activity values of each alkali/alkaline-earth metal in Bi. The results of this work suggest that alkaline-earth fission products accumulated in molten salts (Sr2+ and Ba2+) can be recovered into liquid Bi by electrochemical separation, which could be employed as a critical step for recycling the process salt (LiCl-KCl) in order to minimize the generation of additional nuclear wastes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)810-815
Number of pages6
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Volume281
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 10 2018

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Bismuth
Earth (planet)
Alkaline Earth Metals
Alkaline earth metals
Electrodes
Salts
Liquids
Eutectics
Molten materials
Recycling
Radioactive Waste
Fission products
Nuclear fuels
Alkali metals
Radioactive wastes
Discharge (fluid mechanics)
Electrolytes
Current density
Metals
Thermodynamics

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Electrochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Electrochemical deposition of alkaline-earth elements (Sr and Ba) from LiCl-KCl-SrCl2-BaCl2 solution using a liquid bismuth electrode",
abstract = "Electrochemical deposition of Sr and Ba into liquid Bi metal was investigated in LiCl-KCl-SrCl2-BaCl2 electrolytes at 500 °C as a means to separate stable alkaline-earth ions from the molten salts (eutectic LiCl-KCl) utilized for recycling used nuclear fuel, by leveraging the strong chemical interactions between alkaline-earth metals and liquid Bi. The liquid Bi electrodes were subjected to cathodic discharge up to 270 C g–1 at a constant current density of 50 mA cm−2 in eutectic LiCl-KCl with the addition of 5 mol{\%} total of SrCl2 and/or BaCl2. The use of Bi resulted in complex electrode reactions, leading to co-deposition of Sr (2.0–6.5 mol{\%}), Ba (4.1–12.8 mol{\%}), and Li (5.9–16.2 mol{\%}), and coulombic efficiencies of 63–67{\%} were achieved. The observed co-deposition was also supported via thermodynamic analyses of electrode potentials by incorporating the experimentally determined activity values of each alkali/alkaline-earth metal in Bi. The results of this work suggest that alkaline-earth fission products accumulated in molten salts (Sr2+ and Ba2+) can be recovered into liquid Bi by electrochemical separation, which could be employed as a critical step for recycling the process salt (LiCl-KCl) in order to minimize the generation of additional nuclear wastes.",
author = "Timothy Lichtenstein and Nigl, {Thomas P.} and Smith, {Nathan D.} and Hojong Kim",
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Electrochemical deposition of alkaline-earth elements (Sr and Ba) from LiCl-KCl-SrCl2-BaCl2 solution using a liquid bismuth electrode. / Lichtenstein, Timothy; Nigl, Thomas P.; Smith, Nathan D.; Kim, Hojong.

In: Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 281, 10.08.2018, p. 810-815.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electrochemical deposition of alkaline-earth elements (Sr and Ba) from LiCl-KCl-SrCl2-BaCl2 solution using a liquid bismuth electrode

AU - Lichtenstein, Timothy

AU - Nigl, Thomas P.

AU - Smith, Nathan D.

AU - Kim, Hojong

PY - 2018/8/10

Y1 - 2018/8/10

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AB - Electrochemical deposition of Sr and Ba into liquid Bi metal was investigated in LiCl-KCl-SrCl2-BaCl2 electrolytes at 500 °C as a means to separate stable alkaline-earth ions from the molten salts (eutectic LiCl-KCl) utilized for recycling used nuclear fuel, by leveraging the strong chemical interactions between alkaline-earth metals and liquid Bi. The liquid Bi electrodes were subjected to cathodic discharge up to 270 C g–1 at a constant current density of 50 mA cm−2 in eutectic LiCl-KCl with the addition of 5 mol% total of SrCl2 and/or BaCl2. The use of Bi resulted in complex electrode reactions, leading to co-deposition of Sr (2.0–6.5 mol%), Ba (4.1–12.8 mol%), and Li (5.9–16.2 mol%), and coulombic efficiencies of 63–67% were achieved. The observed co-deposition was also supported via thermodynamic analyses of electrode potentials by incorporating the experimentally determined activity values of each alkali/alkaline-earth metal in Bi. The results of this work suggest that alkaline-earth fission products accumulated in molten salts (Sr2+ and Ba2+) can be recovered into liquid Bi by electrochemical separation, which could be employed as a critical step for recycling the process salt (LiCl-KCl) in order to minimize the generation of additional nuclear wastes.

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