Electrode-ceramic interactions in low-firing PZT multilayer actuators with Ag-Pd electrodes

N. J. Donnelly, Thomas R. Shrout, Clive A. Randall

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

In the last decade piezoelectric multilayer actuators (MLA'S) have been adapted for use in fuel-injector systems in automobiles. The potential for this technology to replace traditional solenoid injectors has renewed research and development in MLA's. In this work we have focused on some of the remaining technological problems which are holding back universal acceptance of piezo-MLA's. The key issues to address are reducing the actuator cost while maintaining performance and reliability. Cost significantly depends on the amount of Pd in the Ag-Pd electrodes which in turn, is dictated by the sintering temperature. By the use of various fluxing agents we have co-fired multilayers with pure Ag electrodes at temperatures as low as 900°C. Maintaining high d33 piezoelectric coefficients at such low sintering temperatures is challenging, but we have managed to produce samples with high field values in excess of 600pm/V. We have shown that reactions may take place between Pd and the ceramic near the interface when Pd-rich electrode compositions are used. Similarly, the degradation of multilayers under HALT testing appears to be dependent on the electrode composition. We have used a combinatorial approach including techniques such as impedance spectroscopy, Rayleigh analysis and novel voltage-contrast SEM analysis to characterize the effects of Ag diffusion and migration in MLA's.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Microelectronics and Packaging Society - 3rd IMAPS/ACerS International Conference and Exhibition on Ceramic Interconnect and Ceramic Microsystems Technologies, CICMT 2007
Pages109-115
Number of pages7
StatePublished - 2007
Event3rd International Conference on Ceramic Interconnect and Ceramic Microsystems Technologies, CICMT 2007 - Denver, CO, United States
Duration: Apr 23 2007Apr 26 2007

Other

Other3rd International Conference on Ceramic Interconnect and Ceramic Microsystems Technologies, CICMT 2007
CountryUnited States
CityDenver, CO
Period4/23/074/26/07

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Ceramics and Composites

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Electrode-ceramic interactions in low-firing PZT multilayer actuators with Ag-Pd electrodes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Donnelly, N. J., Shrout, T. R., & Randall, C. A. (2007). Electrode-ceramic interactions in low-firing PZT multilayer actuators with Ag-Pd electrodes. In International Microelectronics and Packaging Society - 3rd IMAPS/ACerS International Conference and Exhibition on Ceramic Interconnect and Ceramic Microsystems Technologies, CICMT 2007 (pp. 109-115)