Electron bifurcation and confurcation in methanogenesis and reverse methanogenesis

Zhen Yan, James G. Ferry

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Reduction of the disulfide of coenzyme M and coenzyme B (CoMS-SCoB) by heterodisulfide reductases (HdrED and HdrABC) is the final step in all methanogenic pathways. Flavin-based electron bifurcation (FBEB) by soluble HdrABC homologs play additional roles in driving essential endergonic reactions at the expense of the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoM. In the first step of the CO 2 reduction pathway, HdrABC complexed with hydrogenase or formate dehydrogenase generates reduced ferredoxin (Fdx 2- ) for the endergonic reduction of CO 2 coupled to the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB dependent on FBEB of electrons from H 2 or formate. Roles for HdrABC:hydrogenase complexes are also proposed for pathways wherein the methyl group of methanol is reduced to methane with electrons from H 2 . The HdrABC complexes catalyze FBEB-dependent oxidation of H 2 for the endergonic reduction of Fdx driven by the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB. The Fdx 2- supplies electrons for reduction of the methyl group to methane. In H 2 - independent pathways, three-fourths of the methyl groups are oxidized producing Fdx 2- and reduced coenzyme F 420 (F 420 H 2 ). The F 420 H 2 donates electrons for reduction of the remaining methyl groups to methane requiring transfer of electrons from Fdx 2- to F 420 . HdrA1B1C1 is proposed to catalyze FBEB-dependent oxidation of Fdx 2- for the endergonic reduction of F 420 driven by the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB. In H 2 - independent acetotrophic pathways, the methyl group of acetate is reduced to methane with electrons derived from oxidation of the carbonyl group mediated by Fdx. Electron transport involves a membrane-bound complex (Rnf) that oxidizes Fdx 2- and generates a Na+ gradient driving ATP synthesis. It is postulated that F 420 is reduced by Rnf requiring HdrA2B2C2 catalyzing FBEB-dependent oxidation of F 420 H 2 for the endergonic reduction of Fdx driven by the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB. The Fdx 2- is recycled by Rnf and HdrA2B2C2 thereby conserving energy. The HdrA2B2C2 is also proposed to play a role in Fe(III)-dependent reverse methanogenesis. A flavin-based electron confurcating (FBEC) HdrABC complex is proposed for nitrate-dependent reverse methanogenesis in which the oxidation of CoM-SH/CoB-SH and Fdx 2- is coupled to reduction of F 420 . The F 420 H 2 donates electrons to a membrane complex that generates a proton gradient driving ATP synthesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1322
JournalFrontiers in Microbiology
Volume9
Issue numberJUN
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 20 2018

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Electrons
Methane
Hydrogenase
formic acid
Carbon Monoxide
Adenosine Triphosphate
Formate Dehydrogenases
Mesna
Ferredoxins
Membranes
factor 420
Electron Transport
Disulfides
Nitrates
Methanol
4,6-dinitro-o-cresol
Protons

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)

Cite this

@article{11d5f77019a141c490a5f744385e82a9,
title = "Electron bifurcation and confurcation in methanogenesis and reverse methanogenesis",
abstract = "Reduction of the disulfide of coenzyme M and coenzyme B (CoMS-SCoB) by heterodisulfide reductases (HdrED and HdrABC) is the final step in all methanogenic pathways. Flavin-based electron bifurcation (FBEB) by soluble HdrABC homologs play additional roles in driving essential endergonic reactions at the expense of the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoM. In the first step of the CO 2 reduction pathway, HdrABC complexed with hydrogenase or formate dehydrogenase generates reduced ferredoxin (Fdx 2- ) for the endergonic reduction of CO 2 coupled to the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB dependent on FBEB of electrons from H 2 or formate. Roles for HdrABC:hydrogenase complexes are also proposed for pathways wherein the methyl group of methanol is reduced to methane with electrons from H 2 . The HdrABC complexes catalyze FBEB-dependent oxidation of H 2 for the endergonic reduction of Fdx driven by the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB. The Fdx 2- supplies electrons for reduction of the methyl group to methane. In H 2 - independent pathways, three-fourths of the methyl groups are oxidized producing Fdx 2- and reduced coenzyme F 420 (F 420 H 2 ). The F 420 H 2 donates electrons for reduction of the remaining methyl groups to methane requiring transfer of electrons from Fdx 2- to F 420 . HdrA1B1C1 is proposed to catalyze FBEB-dependent oxidation of Fdx 2- for the endergonic reduction of F 420 driven by the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB. In H 2 - independent acetotrophic pathways, the methyl group of acetate is reduced to methane with electrons derived from oxidation of the carbonyl group mediated by Fdx. Electron transport involves a membrane-bound complex (Rnf) that oxidizes Fdx 2- and generates a Na+ gradient driving ATP synthesis. It is postulated that F 420 is reduced by Rnf requiring HdrA2B2C2 catalyzing FBEB-dependent oxidation of F 420 H 2 for the endergonic reduction of Fdx driven by the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB. The Fdx 2- is recycled by Rnf and HdrA2B2C2 thereby conserving energy. The HdrA2B2C2 is also proposed to play a role in Fe(III)-dependent reverse methanogenesis. A flavin-based electron confurcating (FBEC) HdrABC complex is proposed for nitrate-dependent reverse methanogenesis in which the oxidation of CoM-SH/CoB-SH and Fdx 2- is coupled to reduction of F 420 . The F 420 H 2 donates electrons to a membrane complex that generates a proton gradient driving ATP synthesis.",
author = "Zhen Yan and Ferry, {James G.}",
year = "2018",
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}

Electron bifurcation and confurcation in methanogenesis and reverse methanogenesis. / Yan, Zhen; Ferry, James G.

In: Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol. 9, No. JUN, 1322, 20.06.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electron bifurcation and confurcation in methanogenesis and reverse methanogenesis

AU - Yan, Zhen

AU - Ferry, James G.

PY - 2018/6/20

Y1 - 2018/6/20

N2 - Reduction of the disulfide of coenzyme M and coenzyme B (CoMS-SCoB) by heterodisulfide reductases (HdrED and HdrABC) is the final step in all methanogenic pathways. Flavin-based electron bifurcation (FBEB) by soluble HdrABC homologs play additional roles in driving essential endergonic reactions at the expense of the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoM. In the first step of the CO 2 reduction pathway, HdrABC complexed with hydrogenase or formate dehydrogenase generates reduced ferredoxin (Fdx 2- ) for the endergonic reduction of CO 2 coupled to the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB dependent on FBEB of electrons from H 2 or formate. Roles for HdrABC:hydrogenase complexes are also proposed for pathways wherein the methyl group of methanol is reduced to methane with electrons from H 2 . The HdrABC complexes catalyze FBEB-dependent oxidation of H 2 for the endergonic reduction of Fdx driven by the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB. The Fdx 2- supplies electrons for reduction of the methyl group to methane. In H 2 - independent pathways, three-fourths of the methyl groups are oxidized producing Fdx 2- and reduced coenzyme F 420 (F 420 H 2 ). The F 420 H 2 donates electrons for reduction of the remaining methyl groups to methane requiring transfer of electrons from Fdx 2- to F 420 . HdrA1B1C1 is proposed to catalyze FBEB-dependent oxidation of Fdx 2- for the endergonic reduction of F 420 driven by the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB. In H 2 - independent acetotrophic pathways, the methyl group of acetate is reduced to methane with electrons derived from oxidation of the carbonyl group mediated by Fdx. Electron transport involves a membrane-bound complex (Rnf) that oxidizes Fdx 2- and generates a Na+ gradient driving ATP synthesis. It is postulated that F 420 is reduced by Rnf requiring HdrA2B2C2 catalyzing FBEB-dependent oxidation of F 420 H 2 for the endergonic reduction of Fdx driven by the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB. The Fdx 2- is recycled by Rnf and HdrA2B2C2 thereby conserving energy. The HdrA2B2C2 is also proposed to play a role in Fe(III)-dependent reverse methanogenesis. A flavin-based electron confurcating (FBEC) HdrABC complex is proposed for nitrate-dependent reverse methanogenesis in which the oxidation of CoM-SH/CoB-SH and Fdx 2- is coupled to reduction of F 420 . The F 420 H 2 donates electrons to a membrane complex that generates a proton gradient driving ATP synthesis.

AB - Reduction of the disulfide of coenzyme M and coenzyme B (CoMS-SCoB) by heterodisulfide reductases (HdrED and HdrABC) is the final step in all methanogenic pathways. Flavin-based electron bifurcation (FBEB) by soluble HdrABC homologs play additional roles in driving essential endergonic reactions at the expense of the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoM. In the first step of the CO 2 reduction pathway, HdrABC complexed with hydrogenase or formate dehydrogenase generates reduced ferredoxin (Fdx 2- ) for the endergonic reduction of CO 2 coupled to the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB dependent on FBEB of electrons from H 2 or formate. Roles for HdrABC:hydrogenase complexes are also proposed for pathways wherein the methyl group of methanol is reduced to methane with electrons from H 2 . The HdrABC complexes catalyze FBEB-dependent oxidation of H 2 for the endergonic reduction of Fdx driven by the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB. The Fdx 2- supplies electrons for reduction of the methyl group to methane. In H 2 - independent pathways, three-fourths of the methyl groups are oxidized producing Fdx 2- and reduced coenzyme F 420 (F 420 H 2 ). The F 420 H 2 donates electrons for reduction of the remaining methyl groups to methane requiring transfer of electrons from Fdx 2- to F 420 . HdrA1B1C1 is proposed to catalyze FBEB-dependent oxidation of Fdx 2- for the endergonic reduction of F 420 driven by the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB. In H 2 - independent acetotrophic pathways, the methyl group of acetate is reduced to methane with electrons derived from oxidation of the carbonyl group mediated by Fdx. Electron transport involves a membrane-bound complex (Rnf) that oxidizes Fdx 2- and generates a Na+ gradient driving ATP synthesis. It is postulated that F 420 is reduced by Rnf requiring HdrA2B2C2 catalyzing FBEB-dependent oxidation of F 420 H 2 for the endergonic reduction of Fdx driven by the exergonic reduction of CoMS-SCoB. The Fdx 2- is recycled by Rnf and HdrA2B2C2 thereby conserving energy. The HdrA2B2C2 is also proposed to play a role in Fe(III)-dependent reverse methanogenesis. A flavin-based electron confurcating (FBEC) HdrABC complex is proposed for nitrate-dependent reverse methanogenesis in which the oxidation of CoM-SH/CoB-SH and Fdx 2- is coupled to reduction of F 420 . The F 420 H 2 donates electrons to a membrane complex that generates a proton gradient driving ATP synthesis.

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