Employment hardship and rural minorities: Theory, research, and policy

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15 Scopus citations


Rural racial and ethnic minorities are among the poorest of all Americans. This article situates their plight both theoretically and empirically in the context of employment hardship. Defined by access to employment and job quality, employment hardship is more prevalent among nonmetropolitan African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans than it is among either their central city counterparts or non-Hispanic whites. The strengths and limitations of both individuallevel frameworks (e.g., human capital) and macro-level theories (e.g., uneven development) in explaining the economic double jeopardy faced by rural minorities are discussed. Policy recommendations designed to ameliorate employment hardship are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)125-144
Number of pages20
JournalThe Review of Black Political Economy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 1 1994

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cultural Studies
  • Economics and Econometrics


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