In Grapholitha molesta periodicities of both female calling and male response to sex pheromone by wing fanning while walking were determined in part by circadian rhythms. The lights-on photoperiodic cue was at least partly responsible for setting the phase of the female calling rhythm. Absolute temperature levels and not necessarily a decrease in temperature modified the timing of calling; there were both high and low thresholds of temperature and, at particular photoperiod times, a temperature range optimal for calling. When the previous performance of calling was prevented by subthreshold temperatures, calling during the next period commenced earlier if temperatures were favourable. Thus, the previous performance of calling may establish a refractory period, or temperature decrease may act as a cue resetting the phase of the calling rhythm. The ability to use both an endogenous clock and exogenous temperature cues to synchronize sexual activity appears adaptive for a temperate zone insect whose multiple generations are exposed to both long periods of favourable climatic conditions in summer and harsh, unpredictable conditions in spring or fall.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science