Endophthalmitis after 25-gauge and 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy: Incidence and outcomes

Ingrid Scott, Harry W. Flynn, Sundeep Dev, Saad Shaikh, Robert A. Mittra, J. Fernando Arevalo, Andres Kychenthal, Nur Acar

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Abstract

PURPOSE: To compare the rates of endophthalmitis after 20-gauge versus 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and to investigate clinical features of, and visual acuity outcomes, for patients with endophthalmitis after PPV. METHODS: A computerized database search was performed at each author's institution to identify all patients who underwent PPV by any of the authors between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006, and were subsequently treated for endophthalmitis. In addition, all patients who underwent PPV and were subsequently treated for endophthalmitis at Pennsylvania State College of Medicine (Hershey, PA) and Bascom Palmer Eye Institute (Miami, FL) during the study period were included. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to confirm that the endophthalmitis was associated with PPV and to collect clinical data to meet the study objectives. RESULTS: The incidence of endophthalmitis during the study period was 2 cases per 6,375 patients (or 1 case per 3,188 patients; 0.03%) for 20-gauge PPV compared with 11 cases per 1,307 patients (or 1 case per 119 patients; 0.84%) for 25-gauge PPV (P < 0.0001). Of 11 eyes that developed endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV, 9 received endophthalmitis prophylaxis with subconjunctival cefazolin after surgery. Median intraocular pressure on postoperative day 1 was 13 mmHg (range, 5-27 mmHg). Median time between PPV and endophthalmitis presentation was 3 days (range, 1-15 days). Presenting vision was hand motions or better in all eyes. Initial treatment included vitreous tap and injection of antibiotics in nine eyes and PPV and injection of antibiotics in two. All patients received intraocular treatment with vancomycin, and 10 received ceftazidime treatment. Eight patients had final visual acuity of ≥20/400, and four had visual acuity of ≥20/63. Cultures were negative in three cases; no culture specimens were obtained in one case. Six of the seven isolates were coagulase-negative staphylococci, and one was enterococcus. Five of six isolates tested for sensitivity to vancomycin were sensitive, and both isolates tested for sensitivity to ceftazidime were sensitive. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV was significantly higher than that after 20-gauge PPV. Endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV occurred within 15 days of PPV, was usually due to coagulase-negative staphylococci sensitive to vancomycin, and was associated with variable visual outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)138-142
Number of pages5
JournalRetina
Volume28
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008

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Endophthalmitis
Temazepam
Vitrectomy
Incidence
Vancomycin
Visual Acuity
Ceftazidime
Coagulase
Staphylococcus
State Medicine
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Cefazolin
Injections
Enterococcus
Intraocular Pressure
Medical Records

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Scott, I., Flynn, H. W., Dev, S., Shaikh, S., Mittra, R. A., Arevalo, J. F., ... Acar, N. (2008). Endophthalmitis after 25-gauge and 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy: Incidence and outcomes. Retina, 28(1), 138-142. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0b013e31815e9313
Scott, Ingrid ; Flynn, Harry W. ; Dev, Sundeep ; Shaikh, Saad ; Mittra, Robert A. ; Arevalo, J. Fernando ; Kychenthal, Andres ; Acar, Nur. / Endophthalmitis after 25-gauge and 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy : Incidence and outcomes. In: Retina. 2008 ; Vol. 28, No. 1. pp. 138-142.
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abstract = "PURPOSE: To compare the rates of endophthalmitis after 20-gauge versus 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and to investigate clinical features of, and visual acuity outcomes, for patients with endophthalmitis after PPV. METHODS: A computerized database search was performed at each author's institution to identify all patients who underwent PPV by any of the authors between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006, and were subsequently treated for endophthalmitis. In addition, all patients who underwent PPV and were subsequently treated for endophthalmitis at Pennsylvania State College of Medicine (Hershey, PA) and Bascom Palmer Eye Institute (Miami, FL) during the study period were included. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to confirm that the endophthalmitis was associated with PPV and to collect clinical data to meet the study objectives. RESULTS: The incidence of endophthalmitis during the study period was 2 cases per 6,375 patients (or 1 case per 3,188 patients; 0.03{\%}) for 20-gauge PPV compared with 11 cases per 1,307 patients (or 1 case per 119 patients; 0.84{\%}) for 25-gauge PPV (P < 0.0001). Of 11 eyes that developed endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV, 9 received endophthalmitis prophylaxis with subconjunctival cefazolin after surgery. Median intraocular pressure on postoperative day 1 was 13 mmHg (range, 5-27 mmHg). Median time between PPV and endophthalmitis presentation was 3 days (range, 1-15 days). Presenting vision was hand motions or better in all eyes. Initial treatment included vitreous tap and injection of antibiotics in nine eyes and PPV and injection of antibiotics in two. All patients received intraocular treatment with vancomycin, and 10 received ceftazidime treatment. Eight patients had final visual acuity of ≥20/400, and four had visual acuity of ≥20/63. Cultures were negative in three cases; no culture specimens were obtained in one case. Six of the seven isolates were coagulase-negative staphylococci, and one was enterococcus. Five of six isolates tested for sensitivity to vancomycin were sensitive, and both isolates tested for sensitivity to ceftazidime were sensitive. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV was significantly higher than that after 20-gauge PPV. Endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV occurred within 15 days of PPV, was usually due to coagulase-negative staphylococci sensitive to vancomycin, and was associated with variable visual outcomes.",
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Scott, I, Flynn, HW, Dev, S, Shaikh, S, Mittra, RA, Arevalo, JF, Kychenthal, A & Acar, N 2008, 'Endophthalmitis after 25-gauge and 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy: Incidence and outcomes', Retina, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 138-142. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0b013e31815e9313

Endophthalmitis after 25-gauge and 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy : Incidence and outcomes. / Scott, Ingrid; Flynn, Harry W.; Dev, Sundeep; Shaikh, Saad; Mittra, Robert A.; Arevalo, J. Fernando; Kychenthal, Andres; Acar, Nur.

In: Retina, Vol. 28, No. 1, 01.01.2008, p. 138-142.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Endophthalmitis after 25-gauge and 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy

T2 - Incidence and outcomes

AU - Scott, Ingrid

AU - Flynn, Harry W.

AU - Dev, Sundeep

AU - Shaikh, Saad

AU - Mittra, Robert A.

AU - Arevalo, J. Fernando

AU - Kychenthal, Andres

AU - Acar, Nur

PY - 2008/1/1

Y1 - 2008/1/1

N2 - PURPOSE: To compare the rates of endophthalmitis after 20-gauge versus 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and to investigate clinical features of, and visual acuity outcomes, for patients with endophthalmitis after PPV. METHODS: A computerized database search was performed at each author's institution to identify all patients who underwent PPV by any of the authors between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006, and were subsequently treated for endophthalmitis. In addition, all patients who underwent PPV and were subsequently treated for endophthalmitis at Pennsylvania State College of Medicine (Hershey, PA) and Bascom Palmer Eye Institute (Miami, FL) during the study period were included. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to confirm that the endophthalmitis was associated with PPV and to collect clinical data to meet the study objectives. RESULTS: The incidence of endophthalmitis during the study period was 2 cases per 6,375 patients (or 1 case per 3,188 patients; 0.03%) for 20-gauge PPV compared with 11 cases per 1,307 patients (or 1 case per 119 patients; 0.84%) for 25-gauge PPV (P < 0.0001). Of 11 eyes that developed endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV, 9 received endophthalmitis prophylaxis with subconjunctival cefazolin after surgery. Median intraocular pressure on postoperative day 1 was 13 mmHg (range, 5-27 mmHg). Median time between PPV and endophthalmitis presentation was 3 days (range, 1-15 days). Presenting vision was hand motions or better in all eyes. Initial treatment included vitreous tap and injection of antibiotics in nine eyes and PPV and injection of antibiotics in two. All patients received intraocular treatment with vancomycin, and 10 received ceftazidime treatment. Eight patients had final visual acuity of ≥20/400, and four had visual acuity of ≥20/63. Cultures were negative in three cases; no culture specimens were obtained in one case. Six of the seven isolates were coagulase-negative staphylococci, and one was enterococcus. Five of six isolates tested for sensitivity to vancomycin were sensitive, and both isolates tested for sensitivity to ceftazidime were sensitive. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV was significantly higher than that after 20-gauge PPV. Endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV occurred within 15 days of PPV, was usually due to coagulase-negative staphylococci sensitive to vancomycin, and was associated with variable visual outcomes.

AB - PURPOSE: To compare the rates of endophthalmitis after 20-gauge versus 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and to investigate clinical features of, and visual acuity outcomes, for patients with endophthalmitis after PPV. METHODS: A computerized database search was performed at each author's institution to identify all patients who underwent PPV by any of the authors between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006, and were subsequently treated for endophthalmitis. In addition, all patients who underwent PPV and were subsequently treated for endophthalmitis at Pennsylvania State College of Medicine (Hershey, PA) and Bascom Palmer Eye Institute (Miami, FL) during the study period were included. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to confirm that the endophthalmitis was associated with PPV and to collect clinical data to meet the study objectives. RESULTS: The incidence of endophthalmitis during the study period was 2 cases per 6,375 patients (or 1 case per 3,188 patients; 0.03%) for 20-gauge PPV compared with 11 cases per 1,307 patients (or 1 case per 119 patients; 0.84%) for 25-gauge PPV (P < 0.0001). Of 11 eyes that developed endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV, 9 received endophthalmitis prophylaxis with subconjunctival cefazolin after surgery. Median intraocular pressure on postoperative day 1 was 13 mmHg (range, 5-27 mmHg). Median time between PPV and endophthalmitis presentation was 3 days (range, 1-15 days). Presenting vision was hand motions or better in all eyes. Initial treatment included vitreous tap and injection of antibiotics in nine eyes and PPV and injection of antibiotics in two. All patients received intraocular treatment with vancomycin, and 10 received ceftazidime treatment. Eight patients had final visual acuity of ≥20/400, and four had visual acuity of ≥20/63. Cultures were negative in three cases; no culture specimens were obtained in one case. Six of the seven isolates were coagulase-negative staphylococci, and one was enterococcus. Five of six isolates tested for sensitivity to vancomycin were sensitive, and both isolates tested for sensitivity to ceftazidime were sensitive. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV was significantly higher than that after 20-gauge PPV. Endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV occurred within 15 days of PPV, was usually due to coagulase-negative staphylococci sensitive to vancomycin, and was associated with variable visual outcomes.

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