To investigate the incidence, causative organisms, and visual acuity outcomes associated with endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy. Retrospective, noncomparative, consecutive case series. The medical records were reviewed of all patients who developed acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis (within 6 weeks of surgery) after pars plana vitrectomy at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between January 1, 1984 and December 31, 2003. During the 20-year study interval, the overall incidence rate of postvitrectomy endophthalmitis was 0.039% (6/15,326). Cultured organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 3), Proteus mirabilus (n = 1), and Staphylococcus epidermidis/Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 1); one case was culture-negative. Visual acuity after treatment for endophthalmitis ranged from 2/200 to no light perception, with a final vision of light perception or no light perception in four of six (67%) eyes. The incidence of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy is low but the visual acuity outcomes after treatment are generally poor.
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