Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor contributes to hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle vasodilation in humans

Samson Spilk, Michael D. Herr, Lawrence Sinoway, Urs Leuenberger

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Abstract

Systemic hypoxia causes skeletal muscle vasodilation, thereby preserving O2 delivery to active tissues. Nitric oxide (NO), adenosine, and prostaglandins contribute to this vasodilation, but other factors may also play a role. We tested the hypothesis that regional inhibition of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor with the cytochrome P-450 2C9 antagonist fluconazole, alone or combined with the NO synthase antagonist NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), attenuates hypoxia-induced vasodilation. We compared forearm blood flow (FBF) and skin blood flow before and during brachial artery infusion of fluconazole (0.3 mg/min; trial 1) or fluconazole + L-NMMA (50 mg over 10 min; trial 2) and during systemic hypoxia (10 min, arterial PO2 ~37 mmHg) in infused (experimental) and control forearms of 12 healthy humans. During normoxia, fluconazole and fluconazole + L-NMMA reduced (P < 0.05) forearm vascular conductance (FVC) by ~10% and ~18%, respectively. During hypoxia and fluconazole (trial 1), FVC increased by 1.76 ± 0.37 and 0.95 ± 0.35 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). During hypoxia and fluconazole + L-NMMA (trial 2), FVC increased by 2.32 ± 0.51 and 0.72 ± 0.22 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, during hypoxia with L-NMMA alone (trial 3; n = 8) FVC increased by 1.51 ± 0.46 and 0.45 ± 0.32 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). These effects were not due to altered skin blood flow. We conclude that endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor contributes to basal vascular tone and to hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle vasodilation and could be particularly relevant when other vasodilator systems are impaired.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Volume305
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2013

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Forearm
Vasodilation
Endothelium
Fluconazole
omega-N-Methylarginine
Skeletal Muscle
Blood Vessels
Hypoxia
Skin
Brachial Artery
Vasodilator Agents
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Adenosine
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Prostaglandins
Nitric Oxide

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

@article{c472250fb42e428e8e0547d62b99c0fb,
title = "Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor contributes to hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle vasodilation in humans",
abstract = "Systemic hypoxia causes skeletal muscle vasodilation, thereby preserving O2 delivery to active tissues. Nitric oxide (NO), adenosine, and prostaglandins contribute to this vasodilation, but other factors may also play a role. We tested the hypothesis that regional inhibition of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor with the cytochrome P-450 2C9 antagonist fluconazole, alone or combined with the NO synthase antagonist NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), attenuates hypoxia-induced vasodilation. We compared forearm blood flow (FBF) and skin blood flow before and during brachial artery infusion of fluconazole (0.3 mg/min; trial 1) or fluconazole + L-NMMA (50 mg over 10 min; trial 2) and during systemic hypoxia (10 min, arterial PO2 ~37 mmHg) in infused (experimental) and control forearms of 12 healthy humans. During normoxia, fluconazole and fluconazole + L-NMMA reduced (P < 0.05) forearm vascular conductance (FVC) by ~10{\%} and ~18{\%}, respectively. During hypoxia and fluconazole (trial 1), FVC increased by 1.76 ± 0.37 and 0.95 ± 0.35 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). During hypoxia and fluconazole + L-NMMA (trial 2), FVC increased by 2.32 ± 0.51 and 0.72 ± 0.22 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, during hypoxia with L-NMMA alone (trial 3; n = 8) FVC increased by 1.51 ± 0.46 and 0.45 ± 0.32 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). These effects were not due to altered skin blood flow. We conclude that endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor contributes to basal vascular tone and to hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle vasodilation and could be particularly relevant when other vasodilator systems are impaired.",
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N2 - Systemic hypoxia causes skeletal muscle vasodilation, thereby preserving O2 delivery to active tissues. Nitric oxide (NO), adenosine, and prostaglandins contribute to this vasodilation, but other factors may also play a role. We tested the hypothesis that regional inhibition of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor with the cytochrome P-450 2C9 antagonist fluconazole, alone or combined with the NO synthase antagonist NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), attenuates hypoxia-induced vasodilation. We compared forearm blood flow (FBF) and skin blood flow before and during brachial artery infusion of fluconazole (0.3 mg/min; trial 1) or fluconazole + L-NMMA (50 mg over 10 min; trial 2) and during systemic hypoxia (10 min, arterial PO2 ~37 mmHg) in infused (experimental) and control forearms of 12 healthy humans. During normoxia, fluconazole and fluconazole + L-NMMA reduced (P < 0.05) forearm vascular conductance (FVC) by ~10% and ~18%, respectively. During hypoxia and fluconazole (trial 1), FVC increased by 1.76 ± 0.37 and 0.95 ± 0.35 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). During hypoxia and fluconazole + L-NMMA (trial 2), FVC increased by 2.32 ± 0.51 and 0.72 ± 0.22 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, during hypoxia with L-NMMA alone (trial 3; n = 8) FVC increased by 1.51 ± 0.46 and 0.45 ± 0.32 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). These effects were not due to altered skin blood flow. We conclude that endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor contributes to basal vascular tone and to hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle vasodilation and could be particularly relevant when other vasodilator systems are impaired.

AB - Systemic hypoxia causes skeletal muscle vasodilation, thereby preserving O2 delivery to active tissues. Nitric oxide (NO), adenosine, and prostaglandins contribute to this vasodilation, but other factors may also play a role. We tested the hypothesis that regional inhibition of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor with the cytochrome P-450 2C9 antagonist fluconazole, alone or combined with the NO synthase antagonist NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), attenuates hypoxia-induced vasodilation. We compared forearm blood flow (FBF) and skin blood flow before and during brachial artery infusion of fluconazole (0.3 mg/min; trial 1) or fluconazole + L-NMMA (50 mg over 10 min; trial 2) and during systemic hypoxia (10 min, arterial PO2 ~37 mmHg) in infused (experimental) and control forearms of 12 healthy humans. During normoxia, fluconazole and fluconazole + L-NMMA reduced (P < 0.05) forearm vascular conductance (FVC) by ~10% and ~18%, respectively. During hypoxia and fluconazole (trial 1), FVC increased by 1.76 ± 0.37 and 0.95 ± 0.35 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). During hypoxia and fluconazole + L-NMMA (trial 2), FVC increased by 2.32 ± 0.51 and 0.72 ± 0.22 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, during hypoxia with L-NMMA alone (trial 3; n = 8) FVC increased by 1.51 ± 0.46 and 0.45 ± 0.32 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). These effects were not due to altered skin blood flow. We conclude that endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor contributes to basal vascular tone and to hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle vasodilation and could be particularly relevant when other vasodilator systems are impaired.

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