Energetic Sn+ irradiation effects on ruthenium mirror specular reflectivity at 13.5-nm

Jean Paul Allain, M. Nieto-Perez, M. R. Hendricks, P. Zink, C. Metzmacher, K. Bergmann

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2 Scopus citations


Sn+ irradiations of Ru single-layer mirrors (SLM) simulate conditions of fast-Sn ion exposure in high-intensity 13.5 nm lithography lamps. Ultra-shallow implantation of Sn is measured down to 1-1.5 nm depth for energies between 1-1.3 keV at near-normal incident angles on Ru mirror surfaces. The Sn surface concentration reaches an equilibrium of 55-58% Sn/Ru for near-normal incidence and 36-38% for grazing incidence at approximately 63 degrees with respect to the mirror surface normal. The relative reflectivity at 13.5 nm at 15-degree incidence was measured in-situ during Sn+ irradiation. For near-normal Sn+ exposures the reflectivity is measured to decrease between 4-7% for a total Sn fluence of 1016 cm-2. Theoretical Fresnel reflectivity modeling shows for the same fluence assuming all Sn atoms form a layer on the Ru mirror surface, that the reflectivity loss should be between 15-18% for this dose. Ex-situ absolute 13.5 nm reflectivity data corroborate these results, indicating that implanted energetic Sn atoms mixed with Ru reflect 13.5-nm light differently than theoretically predicted by Fresnel reflectivity models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-237
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)


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