Energy sources for glutamate neurotransmission in the retina: Absence of the aspartate/glutamate carrier produces reliance on glycolysis in glia

Y. Xu, M. S. Ola, D. A. Berkich, T. W. Gardner, A. J. Barber, F. Palmieri, S. M. Hutson, K. F. LaNoue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The mitochondrial transporter, the aspartate/glutamate carrier (AGC), is a necessary component of the malate/aspartate cycle, which promotes the transfer into mitochondria of reducing equivalents generated in the cytosol during glycolysis. Without transfer of cytosolic reducing equivalents into mitochondria, neither glucose nor lactate can be completely oxidized. In the present study, immunohistochemistry was used to demonstrate the absence of AGC from retinal glia (Müller cells), but its presence in neurons and photoreceptor cells. To determine the influence of the absence of AGC on sources of ATP for glutamate neurotransmission, neurotransmission was estimated in both light- and dark-adapted retinas by measuring flux through the glutamate/glutamine cycle and the effect of light on ATP-generating reactions. Neurotransmission was 80% faster in the dark as expected, because photoreceptors become depolarized in the dark and this depolarization induces release of excitatory glutamate neurotransmitter. Oxidation of [U-14C]glucose, [1-14C]lactate, and [1-14C]pyruvate in light- and dark-adapted excised retinas was estimated by collecting 14CO 2. Neither glucose nor lactate oxidation that require participation of the malate/aspartate shuttle increased in the dark, but pyruvate oxidation that does not require the malate/aspartate shuttle increased to 36% in the dark. Aerobic glycolysis was estimated by measuring the rate of lactate appearance. Glycolysis was 37% faster in the dark. It appears that in the retina, ATP consumed during glutamatergic neurotransmission is replenished by ATP generated glycolytically within the retinal Müller cells and that oxidation of glucose within the Müller cells does not occur or occurs only slowly.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)120-131
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of neurochemistry
Volume101
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2007

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Glycolysis
Synaptic Transmission
Neuroglia
Retina
Glutamic Acid
Lactic Acid
Adenosine Triphosphate
Aspartic Acid
Glucose
Oxidation
Mitochondria
Pyruvic Acid
Light
Photoreceptor Cells
Depolarization
Photoperiod
Glutamine
Cytosol
Neurons
Neurotransmitter Agents

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Xu, Y. ; Ola, M. S. ; Berkich, D. A. ; Gardner, T. W. ; Barber, A. J. ; Palmieri, F. ; Hutson, S. M. ; LaNoue, K. F. / Energy sources for glutamate neurotransmission in the retina : Absence of the aspartate/glutamate carrier produces reliance on glycolysis in glia. In: Journal of neurochemistry. 2007 ; Vol. 101, No. 1. pp. 120-131.
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abstract = "The mitochondrial transporter, the aspartate/glutamate carrier (AGC), is a necessary component of the malate/aspartate cycle, which promotes the transfer into mitochondria of reducing equivalents generated in the cytosol during glycolysis. Without transfer of cytosolic reducing equivalents into mitochondria, neither glucose nor lactate can be completely oxidized. In the present study, immunohistochemistry was used to demonstrate the absence of AGC from retinal glia (M{\"u}ller cells), but its presence in neurons and photoreceptor cells. To determine the influence of the absence of AGC on sources of ATP for glutamate neurotransmission, neurotransmission was estimated in both light- and dark-adapted retinas by measuring flux through the glutamate/glutamine cycle and the effect of light on ATP-generating reactions. Neurotransmission was 80{\%} faster in the dark as expected, because photoreceptors become depolarized in the dark and this depolarization induces release of excitatory glutamate neurotransmitter. Oxidation of [U-14C]glucose, [1-14C]lactate, and [1-14C]pyruvate in light- and dark-adapted excised retinas was estimated by collecting 14CO 2. Neither glucose nor lactate oxidation that require participation of the malate/aspartate shuttle increased in the dark, but pyruvate oxidation that does not require the malate/aspartate shuttle increased to 36{\%} in the dark. Aerobic glycolysis was estimated by measuring the rate of lactate appearance. Glycolysis was 37{\%} faster in the dark. It appears that in the retina, ATP consumed during glutamatergic neurotransmission is replenished by ATP generated glycolytically within the retinal M{\"u}ller cells and that oxidation of glucose within the M{\"u}ller cells does not occur or occurs only slowly.",
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Energy sources for glutamate neurotransmission in the retina : Absence of the aspartate/glutamate carrier produces reliance on glycolysis in glia. / Xu, Y.; Ola, M. S.; Berkich, D. A.; Gardner, T. W.; Barber, A. J.; Palmieri, F.; Hutson, S. M.; LaNoue, K. F.

In: Journal of neurochemistry, Vol. 101, No. 1, 01.04.2007, p. 120-131.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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