Linear supercapacitors suffer a severe loss of capacity at high rates due to the trade-off of radial ion diffusion and axial electron transport. Optimizing axial conductivity of electrodes is a key to circumvent this trade-off. We report here the synthesis of Au nanograin decorated aligned multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets, followed by the incorporation of polyaniline (PANI). The embedded Au nanograins results in fast radial ion diffusion and enhance axial electron transport in the linear electrodes. The flexible linear solid supercapacitor fabricated by twisting two PANI@Au@CNT yarns exhibits an outstanding electrochemical performance with a total volumetric capacitance of ∼6 F cm−3 at scan rate up to 10 V s−1. Diameter of the electrode has little effect on volumetric capacitance even at high scan rates because of its high electrical conductivity. Highly stretchable supercapacitors with high rate performance and excellent cycling and stretching stability have been also fabricated using buckled linear electrodes made by wrapping PANI@Au@CNT sheet on elastic rubber fibers. The stretchable linear supercapacitor possesses a stable total volumetric capacitance of up to ∼0.2 F cm−3 at scan rate of 1 V s−1 and at 400% strain, and remarkable capacitance retention of about 95% over 1000 stretch/release cycles.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering