Environmental impacts of emergency livestock mortality composting - leachate release and soil contamination

T. D. Glanville, H. K. Ahn, T. L. Richard, J. D. Harmon, D. L. Reynolds, S. Akinc

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A 3-year study was conducted in Iowa to evaluate the feasibility of using composting for emergency disposal of cattle mortalities. During the study, 49 metric tons of 450 kg cattle carcasses were composted in 27 replicated unturned windrow test units constructed during three different seasons of the year. Each test unit contained 1.8 metric tons of carcasses enveloped in one of 5 different materials: corn silage, ground cornstalks, straw/manure, leaves, or a soil/compost blend. Due to their water absorbing capacity and ability to evaporate absorbed water, the volume ofleachate released into the soil was generally less than 5% of the 500-600 mm of precipitation that fell on the test units. Chemical analysis of 1.2 m deep soil cores collected from beneath the composting test units prior to and following composting showed statistically significant increases in chloride concentrations at all depths beneath composting test units constructed from silage, cornstalks, straw, and the soil/compost blend. Statistically significant increases in % total carbon (silage test units only) and % total nitrogen (silage, cornstalk, straw/manure test units) were limited to the top 15 cm of soil. Increases in these pollutants were moderate, amounting to less than 5X, 0.2Xand 0.4 Xrespectively of chloride, % total carbon, % total N concentrations prior to composting. Statistically significant increases in total ammonia-nitrogen were noted at depths of up to 90 cm beneath test units constructed with silage or leaves, and at 30 cm and 15 cm depths respectively beneath test units constructed with straw/manure and cornstalks. The ammonia-nitrogen increases were large, ranging from 40-160 X of pre-composting levels of ammonia in the topsoil. When compared with the groundwater pollution potential of carcass burial, however, the estimated total mass of N contained in the composted cattle carcasses was 4-10 X the increases in total N measured in the soil beneath the composting test units.

Original languageEnglish (US)
StatePublished - Dec 1 2006
Event2006 ASABE Annual International Meeting - Portland, OR, United States
Duration: Jul 9 2006Jul 12 2006

Other

Other2006 ASABE Annual International Meeting
CountryUnited States
CityPortland, OR
Period7/9/067/12/06

Fingerprint

Livestock
soil pollution
leachates
composting
environmental impact
Emergencies
Soil
livestock
Silage
Mortality
Manure
silage
testing
Ammonia
straw
Nitrogen
animal manures
soil
beef carcasses
ammonia

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Glanville, T. D., Ahn, H. K., Richard, T. L., Harmon, J. D., Reynolds, D. L., & Akinc, S. (2006). Environmental impacts of emergency livestock mortality composting - leachate release and soil contamination. Paper presented at 2006 ASABE Annual International Meeting, Portland, OR, United States.
Glanville, T. D. ; Ahn, H. K. ; Richard, T. L. ; Harmon, J. D. ; Reynolds, D. L. ; Akinc, S. / Environmental impacts of emergency livestock mortality composting - leachate release and soil contamination. Paper presented at 2006 ASABE Annual International Meeting, Portland, OR, United States.
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abstract = "A 3-year study was conducted in Iowa to evaluate the feasibility of using composting for emergency disposal of cattle mortalities. During the study, 49 metric tons of 450 kg cattle carcasses were composted in 27 replicated unturned windrow test units constructed during three different seasons of the year. Each test unit contained 1.8 metric tons of carcasses enveloped in one of 5 different materials: corn silage, ground cornstalks, straw/manure, leaves, or a soil/compost blend. Due to their water absorbing capacity and ability to evaporate absorbed water, the volume ofleachate released into the soil was generally less than 5{\%} of the 500-600 mm of precipitation that fell on the test units. Chemical analysis of 1.2 m deep soil cores collected from beneath the composting test units prior to and following composting showed statistically significant increases in chloride concentrations at all depths beneath composting test units constructed from silage, cornstalks, straw, and the soil/compost blend. Statistically significant increases in {\%} total carbon (silage test units only) and {\%} total nitrogen (silage, cornstalk, straw/manure test units) were limited to the top 15 cm of soil. Increases in these pollutants were moderate, amounting to less than 5X, 0.2Xand 0.4 Xrespectively of chloride, {\%} total carbon, {\%} total N concentrations prior to composting. Statistically significant increases in total ammonia-nitrogen were noted at depths of up to 90 cm beneath test units constructed with silage or leaves, and at 30 cm and 15 cm depths respectively beneath test units constructed with straw/manure and cornstalks. The ammonia-nitrogen increases were large, ranging from 40-160 X of pre-composting levels of ammonia in the topsoil. When compared with the groundwater pollution potential of carcass burial, however, the estimated total mass of N contained in the composted cattle carcasses was 4-10 X the increases in total N measured in the soil beneath the composting test units.",
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Glanville, TD, Ahn, HK, Richard, TL, Harmon, JD, Reynolds, DL & Akinc, S 2006, 'Environmental impacts of emergency livestock mortality composting - leachate release and soil contamination' Paper presented at 2006 ASABE Annual International Meeting, Portland, OR, United States, 7/9/06 - 7/12/06, .

Environmental impacts of emergency livestock mortality composting - leachate release and soil contamination. / Glanville, T. D.; Ahn, H. K.; Richard, T. L.; Harmon, J. D.; Reynolds, D. L.; Akinc, S.

2006. Paper presented at 2006 ASABE Annual International Meeting, Portland, OR, United States.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

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Glanville TD, Ahn HK, Richard TL, Harmon JD, Reynolds DL, Akinc S. Environmental impacts of emergency livestock mortality composting - leachate release and soil contamination. 2006. Paper presented at 2006 ASABE Annual International Meeting, Portland, OR, United States.