Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C activates the latent membrane protein 1 promoter in the presence of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 through sequences encompassing an Spi-1/Spi-B binding site

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Abstract

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA-3C) protein is a transcriptional regulator of viral and cellular genes that is essential for EBV-mediated immortalization of B lymphocytes in vitro. EBNA-3C can inhibit transcription through an association with the cellular DNA-binding protein JK, a function shared by EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B. Here, we report a mechanism by which EBNA-3C can activate transcription from the EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) promoter in conjunction with EBNA-2. JK DNA-binding sites were not required for this activation, and a mutant EBNA-3C protein unable to bind JK activated transcription as efficiently as wild-type EBNA-3C, indicating that EBNA-3C can regulate transcription through a mechanism that is independent of JK. Furthermore, activation of the LMP-1 promoter is a unique function of EBNA-3C, not shared by EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B. The DNA element through which EBNA-3C activates the LMP-1 promoter includes a Spi-1/Spi-B binding site, previously characterized as an important EBNA-2 response element. Although this element has considerable homology to mouse immunoglobulin light chain promoter sequences to which the mouse homologue of Spi-1 binds with its dimerization partner IRF4, we demonstrate that the IRF4-like binding sites in the LMP-1 promoter do not play a role in EBNA-3C-mediated activation. Both EBNA-2 and EBNA-3C were required for transcription mediated through a 41-bp region of the LMP-1 promoter encompassing the Spi binding site. However, EBNA-3C had no effect on transcription mediated in conjunction with the EBNA- 2 activation domain fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain, suggesting that it does not function as an adapter between EBNA-2 and the cellular transcriptional machinery. Like EBNA-2, EBNA-3C bound directly to both Spi-1 and Spi-B in vitro. This interaction was mediated by a region of EBNA-3C encompassing a likely basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain and the ets domain of Spi-1 or Spi-B, reminiscent of interactions between bZIP and ets domains of other transcription factors that result in their targeting to DNA. There are many examples of regulation of the hematopoietic-specific Spi transcription factors through protein-protein interactions, and a similar regulation by EBNA-3C, in conjunction with EBNA-2, is likely to be an important and unique contribution of EBNA-3C to EBV-mediated immortalization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5151-5160
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of virology
Volume74
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 5 2000

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nuclear antigens
Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens
Human herpesvirus 4
membrane proteins
binding sites
Membrane Proteins
Binding Sites
promoter regions
transcription (genetics)
Leucine Zippers
leucine zipper
DNA
transcription factors
lambda Spi-1
epstein-barr virus EBNA-3C
Human Herpesvirus 4
Proteins
Transcription Factors
immunoglobulin light chains
Immunoglobulin Light Chains

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology

Cite this

@article{f4962beaa8ac468c8f7e7e4ad41c596d,
title = "Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C activates the latent membrane protein 1 promoter in the presence of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 through sequences encompassing an Spi-1/Spi-B binding site",
abstract = "The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA-3C) protein is a transcriptional regulator of viral and cellular genes that is essential for EBV-mediated immortalization of B lymphocytes in vitro. EBNA-3C can inhibit transcription through an association with the cellular DNA-binding protein JK, a function shared by EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B. Here, we report a mechanism by which EBNA-3C can activate transcription from the EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) promoter in conjunction with EBNA-2. JK DNA-binding sites were not required for this activation, and a mutant EBNA-3C protein unable to bind JK activated transcription as efficiently as wild-type EBNA-3C, indicating that EBNA-3C can regulate transcription through a mechanism that is independent of JK. Furthermore, activation of the LMP-1 promoter is a unique function of EBNA-3C, not shared by EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B. The DNA element through which EBNA-3C activates the LMP-1 promoter includes a Spi-1/Spi-B binding site, previously characterized as an important EBNA-2 response element. Although this element has considerable homology to mouse immunoglobulin light chain promoter sequences to which the mouse homologue of Spi-1 binds with its dimerization partner IRF4, we demonstrate that the IRF4-like binding sites in the LMP-1 promoter do not play a role in EBNA-3C-mediated activation. Both EBNA-2 and EBNA-3C were required for transcription mediated through a 41-bp region of the LMP-1 promoter encompassing the Spi binding site. However, EBNA-3C had no effect on transcription mediated in conjunction with the EBNA- 2 activation domain fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain, suggesting that it does not function as an adapter between EBNA-2 and the cellular transcriptional machinery. Like EBNA-2, EBNA-3C bound directly to both Spi-1 and Spi-B in vitro. This interaction was mediated by a region of EBNA-3C encompassing a likely basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain and the ets domain of Spi-1 or Spi-B, reminiscent of interactions between bZIP and ets domains of other transcription factors that result in their targeting to DNA. There are many examples of regulation of the hematopoietic-specific Spi transcription factors through protein-protein interactions, and a similar regulation by EBNA-3C, in conjunction with EBNA-2, is likely to be an important and unique contribution of EBNA-3C to EBV-mediated immortalization.",
author = "Bo Zhao and Sample, {Clare E.}",
year = "2000",
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doi = "10.1128/JVI.74.11.5151-5160.2000",
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journal = "Journal of Virology",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C activates the latent membrane protein 1 promoter in the presence of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 through sequences encompassing an Spi-1/Spi-B binding site

AU - Zhao, Bo

AU - Sample, Clare E.

PY - 2000/6/5

Y1 - 2000/6/5

N2 - The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA-3C) protein is a transcriptional regulator of viral and cellular genes that is essential for EBV-mediated immortalization of B lymphocytes in vitro. EBNA-3C can inhibit transcription through an association with the cellular DNA-binding protein JK, a function shared by EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B. Here, we report a mechanism by which EBNA-3C can activate transcription from the EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) promoter in conjunction with EBNA-2. JK DNA-binding sites were not required for this activation, and a mutant EBNA-3C protein unable to bind JK activated transcription as efficiently as wild-type EBNA-3C, indicating that EBNA-3C can regulate transcription through a mechanism that is independent of JK. Furthermore, activation of the LMP-1 promoter is a unique function of EBNA-3C, not shared by EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B. The DNA element through which EBNA-3C activates the LMP-1 promoter includes a Spi-1/Spi-B binding site, previously characterized as an important EBNA-2 response element. Although this element has considerable homology to mouse immunoglobulin light chain promoter sequences to which the mouse homologue of Spi-1 binds with its dimerization partner IRF4, we demonstrate that the IRF4-like binding sites in the LMP-1 promoter do not play a role in EBNA-3C-mediated activation. Both EBNA-2 and EBNA-3C were required for transcription mediated through a 41-bp region of the LMP-1 promoter encompassing the Spi binding site. However, EBNA-3C had no effect on transcription mediated in conjunction with the EBNA- 2 activation domain fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain, suggesting that it does not function as an adapter between EBNA-2 and the cellular transcriptional machinery. Like EBNA-2, EBNA-3C bound directly to both Spi-1 and Spi-B in vitro. This interaction was mediated by a region of EBNA-3C encompassing a likely basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain and the ets domain of Spi-1 or Spi-B, reminiscent of interactions between bZIP and ets domains of other transcription factors that result in their targeting to DNA. There are many examples of regulation of the hematopoietic-specific Spi transcription factors through protein-protein interactions, and a similar regulation by EBNA-3C, in conjunction with EBNA-2, is likely to be an important and unique contribution of EBNA-3C to EBV-mediated immortalization.

AB - The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA-3C) protein is a transcriptional regulator of viral and cellular genes that is essential for EBV-mediated immortalization of B lymphocytes in vitro. EBNA-3C can inhibit transcription through an association with the cellular DNA-binding protein JK, a function shared by EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B. Here, we report a mechanism by which EBNA-3C can activate transcription from the EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) promoter in conjunction with EBNA-2. JK DNA-binding sites were not required for this activation, and a mutant EBNA-3C protein unable to bind JK activated transcription as efficiently as wild-type EBNA-3C, indicating that EBNA-3C can regulate transcription through a mechanism that is independent of JK. Furthermore, activation of the LMP-1 promoter is a unique function of EBNA-3C, not shared by EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B. The DNA element through which EBNA-3C activates the LMP-1 promoter includes a Spi-1/Spi-B binding site, previously characterized as an important EBNA-2 response element. Although this element has considerable homology to mouse immunoglobulin light chain promoter sequences to which the mouse homologue of Spi-1 binds with its dimerization partner IRF4, we demonstrate that the IRF4-like binding sites in the LMP-1 promoter do not play a role in EBNA-3C-mediated activation. Both EBNA-2 and EBNA-3C were required for transcription mediated through a 41-bp region of the LMP-1 promoter encompassing the Spi binding site. However, EBNA-3C had no effect on transcription mediated in conjunction with the EBNA- 2 activation domain fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain, suggesting that it does not function as an adapter between EBNA-2 and the cellular transcriptional machinery. Like EBNA-2, EBNA-3C bound directly to both Spi-1 and Spi-B in vitro. This interaction was mediated by a region of EBNA-3C encompassing a likely basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain and the ets domain of Spi-1 or Spi-B, reminiscent of interactions between bZIP and ets domains of other transcription factors that result in their targeting to DNA. There are many examples of regulation of the hematopoietic-specific Spi transcription factors through protein-protein interactions, and a similar regulation by EBNA-3C, in conjunction with EBNA-2, is likely to be an important and unique contribution of EBNA-3C to EBV-mediated immortalization.

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