Equivalent circuit modeling of ionomer and ionic polymer conductive network composite actuators containing ionic liquids

Yang Liu, Ran Zhao, Mehdi Ghaffari, Junhong Lin, Sheng Liu, Hülya Cebeci, Roberto Guzmán De Villoria, Reza Montazami, Dong Wang, Brian L. Wardle, James R. Heflin, Qiming Zhang

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    30 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    In this study, we demonstrate electrical equivalent circuits that model the complex frequency-dependent impedance of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EMI-Tf) containing electro-active polymer membranes and ionic polymer conductor network composite (IPCNC) devices. The devices include Nafion membrane actuators, Nafion coated with layer-by-layer (LbL) Au nanoparticle/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) composite actuators, and Nafion with vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT)/Nafion composite actuators. It is found that the low frequency responses of these devices indicate Warburg diffusion. Therefore, Warburg impedance is utilized to model the low frequency diffusion behavior of the devices, while the electric double layer capacitance (C dl) represents the storage of drifting ions under electric field at high frequencies. It is found that C dl for Nafion with 40 wt% EMI-Tf is 7.5 μF/cm 2 and increases to 11.4 μF/cm 2 with increasing surface area of the LbL composite electrode. C dl increases further to above 3 × 10 3 μF/cm 2 for an actuator with 12 μm VA-CNT/Nafion composite electrodes, while the Warburg coefficient A W remains nearly the same for all the devices. As a result, the actuation magnitude and speed increase with charges accumulated due to higher C dl, without much increase in the contribution from the slow ion diffusion process.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)70-76
    Number of pages7
    JournalSensors and Actuators, A: Physical
    Volume181
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jul 1 2012

    Fingerprint

    Ionic Liquids
    Ionomers
    Ionic liquids
    equivalent circuits
    Equivalent circuits
    Polymers
    Actuators
    actuators
    composite materials
    Composite materials
    polymers
    liquids
    Carbon Nanotubes
    Carbon nanotubes
    carbon nanotubes
    impedance
    membranes
    low frequencies
    Membranes
    electroactive polymers

    All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

    • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
    • Instrumentation
    • Condensed Matter Physics
    • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
    • Metals and Alloys
    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    Cite this

    Liu, Yang ; Zhao, Ran ; Ghaffari, Mehdi ; Lin, Junhong ; Liu, Sheng ; Cebeci, Hülya ; De Villoria, Roberto Guzmán ; Montazami, Reza ; Wang, Dong ; Wardle, Brian L. ; Heflin, James R. ; Zhang, Qiming. / Equivalent circuit modeling of ionomer and ionic polymer conductive network composite actuators containing ionic liquids. In: Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical. 2012 ; Vol. 181. pp. 70-76.
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    abstract = "In this study, we demonstrate electrical equivalent circuits that model the complex frequency-dependent impedance of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EMI-Tf) containing electro-active polymer membranes and ionic polymer conductor network composite (IPCNC) devices. The devices include Nafion membrane actuators, Nafion coated with layer-by-layer (LbL) Au nanoparticle/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) composite actuators, and Nafion with vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT)/Nafion composite actuators. It is found that the low frequency responses of these devices indicate Warburg diffusion. Therefore, Warburg impedance is utilized to model the low frequency diffusion behavior of the devices, while the electric double layer capacitance (C dl) represents the storage of drifting ions under electric field at high frequencies. It is found that C dl for Nafion with 40 wt{\%} EMI-Tf is 7.5 μF/cm 2 and increases to 11.4 μF/cm 2 with increasing surface area of the LbL composite electrode. C dl increases further to above 3 × 10 3 μF/cm 2 for an actuator with 12 μm VA-CNT/Nafion composite electrodes, while the Warburg coefficient A W remains nearly the same for all the devices. As a result, the actuation magnitude and speed increase with charges accumulated due to higher C dl, without much increase in the contribution from the slow ion diffusion process.",
    author = "Yang Liu and Ran Zhao and Mehdi Ghaffari and Junhong Lin and Sheng Liu and H{\"u}lya Cebeci and {De Villoria}, {Roberto Guzm{\'a}n} and Reza Montazami and Dong Wang and Wardle, {Brian L.} and Heflin, {James R.} and Qiming Zhang",
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    Liu, Y, Zhao, R, Ghaffari, M, Lin, J, Liu, S, Cebeci, H, De Villoria, RG, Montazami, R, Wang, D, Wardle, BL, Heflin, JR & Zhang, Q 2012, 'Equivalent circuit modeling of ionomer and ionic polymer conductive network composite actuators containing ionic liquids', Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical, vol. 181, pp. 70-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2012.05.002

    Equivalent circuit modeling of ionomer and ionic polymer conductive network composite actuators containing ionic liquids. / Liu, Yang; Zhao, Ran; Ghaffari, Mehdi; Lin, Junhong; Liu, Sheng; Cebeci, Hülya; De Villoria, Roberto Guzmán; Montazami, Reza; Wang, Dong; Wardle, Brian L.; Heflin, James R.; Zhang, Qiming.

    In: Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical, Vol. 181, 01.07.2012, p. 70-76.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    T1 - Equivalent circuit modeling of ionomer and ionic polymer conductive network composite actuators containing ionic liquids

    AU - Liu, Yang

    AU - Zhao, Ran

    AU - Ghaffari, Mehdi

    AU - Lin, Junhong

    AU - Liu, Sheng

    AU - Cebeci, Hülya

    AU - De Villoria, Roberto Guzmán

    AU - Montazami, Reza

    AU - Wang, Dong

    AU - Wardle, Brian L.

    AU - Heflin, James R.

    AU - Zhang, Qiming

    PY - 2012/7/1

    Y1 - 2012/7/1

    N2 - In this study, we demonstrate electrical equivalent circuits that model the complex frequency-dependent impedance of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EMI-Tf) containing electro-active polymer membranes and ionic polymer conductor network composite (IPCNC) devices. The devices include Nafion membrane actuators, Nafion coated with layer-by-layer (LbL) Au nanoparticle/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) composite actuators, and Nafion with vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT)/Nafion composite actuators. It is found that the low frequency responses of these devices indicate Warburg diffusion. Therefore, Warburg impedance is utilized to model the low frequency diffusion behavior of the devices, while the electric double layer capacitance (C dl) represents the storage of drifting ions under electric field at high frequencies. It is found that C dl for Nafion with 40 wt% EMI-Tf is 7.5 μF/cm 2 and increases to 11.4 μF/cm 2 with increasing surface area of the LbL composite electrode. C dl increases further to above 3 × 10 3 μF/cm 2 for an actuator with 12 μm VA-CNT/Nafion composite electrodes, while the Warburg coefficient A W remains nearly the same for all the devices. As a result, the actuation magnitude and speed increase with charges accumulated due to higher C dl, without much increase in the contribution from the slow ion diffusion process.

    AB - In this study, we demonstrate electrical equivalent circuits that model the complex frequency-dependent impedance of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EMI-Tf) containing electro-active polymer membranes and ionic polymer conductor network composite (IPCNC) devices. The devices include Nafion membrane actuators, Nafion coated with layer-by-layer (LbL) Au nanoparticle/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) composite actuators, and Nafion with vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT)/Nafion composite actuators. It is found that the low frequency responses of these devices indicate Warburg diffusion. Therefore, Warburg impedance is utilized to model the low frequency diffusion behavior of the devices, while the electric double layer capacitance (C dl) represents the storage of drifting ions under electric field at high frequencies. It is found that C dl for Nafion with 40 wt% EMI-Tf is 7.5 μF/cm 2 and increases to 11.4 μF/cm 2 with increasing surface area of the LbL composite electrode. C dl increases further to above 3 × 10 3 μF/cm 2 for an actuator with 12 μm VA-CNT/Nafion composite electrodes, while the Warburg coefficient A W remains nearly the same for all the devices. As a result, the actuation magnitude and speed increase with charges accumulated due to higher C dl, without much increase in the contribution from the slow ion diffusion process.

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