Error and attack tolerance of complex networks

Réka Albert, Hawoong Jeong, Albert László Barabási

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5500 Scopus citations

Abstract

Many complex systems display a surprising degree of tolerance against errors. For example, relatively simple organisms grow, persist and reproduce despite drastic pharmaceutical or environmental interventions, an error tolerance attributed to the robustness of the underlying metabolic network. Complex communication networks display a surprising degree of robustness: although key components regularly malfunction, local failures rarely lead to the loss of the global information-carrying ability of the network. The stability of these and other complex systems is often attributed to the redundant wiring of the functional web defined by the systems' components. Here we demonstrate that error tolerance is not shared by all redundant systems: it is displayed only by a class of inhomogeneously wired networks, called scale-free networks, which include the World-Wide Web, the Internet, social networks and cells. We find that such networks display an unexpected degree of robustness, the ability of their nodes to communicate being unaffected even by unrealistically high failure rates. However, error tolerance comes at a high price in that these networks are extremely vulnerable to attacks (that is, to the selection and removal of a few nodes that play a vital role in maintaining the network's connectivity). Such error tolerance and attack vulnerability are generic properties of communication networks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)378-382
Number of pages5
JournalNature
Volume406
Issue number6794
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 27 2000

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

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    Albert, R., Jeong, H., & Barabási, A. L. (2000). Error and attack tolerance of complex networks. Nature, 406(6794), 378-382. https://doi.org/10.1038/35019019