Escape from X chromosome inactivation is an intrinsic property of the Jarid1c locus

Nan Li, Laura Carrel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although most genes on one X chromosome in mammalian females are silenced by X inactivation, some "escape" X inactivation and are expressed from both active and inactive Xs. How these escape genes are transcribed from a largely inactivated chromosome is not fully understood, but underlying genomic sequences are likely involved. We developed a transgene approach to ask whether an escape locus is autonomous or is instead influenced by X chromosome location. Two BACs carrying the mouse Jarid1c gene and adjacent X-inactivated transcripts were randomly integrated into mouse XX embryonic stem cells. Four lines with single-copy, X-linked transgenes were identified, and each was inserted into regions that are normally X-inactivated. As expected for genes that are normally subject to X inactivation, transgene transcripts Tspyl2 and Iqsec2 were X-inactivated. However, allelic expression and RNA/DNA FISH indicate that transgenic Jarid1c escapes X inactivation. Therefore, transgenes at 4 different X locations recapitulate endogenous inactive X expression patterns. We conclude that escape from X inactivation is an intrinsic feature of the Jarid1c locus and functionally delimit this escape domain to the 112-kb maximum overlap of the BACs tested. Additionally, although extensive chromatin differences normally distinguish active and inactive loci, unmodified BACs direct proper inactive X expression patterns, establishing that primary DNA sequence alone, in a chromosome position-independent manner, is sufficient to determine X chromosome inactivation status. This transgene approach will enable further dissection of key elements of escape domains and allow rigorous testing of specific genomic sequences on inactive X expression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17055-17060
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume105
Issue number44
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 4 2008

Fingerprint

X Chromosome Inactivation
Transgenes
X Chromosome
Genes
Chromosomes
Chromatin
Dissection
RNA
DNA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Cite this

@article{bdcc1d57e25e400b826069b54712fa54,
title = "Escape from X chromosome inactivation is an intrinsic property of the Jarid1c locus",
abstract = "Although most genes on one X chromosome in mammalian females are silenced by X inactivation, some {"}escape{"} X inactivation and are expressed from both active and inactive Xs. How these escape genes are transcribed from a largely inactivated chromosome is not fully understood, but underlying genomic sequences are likely involved. We developed a transgene approach to ask whether an escape locus is autonomous or is instead influenced by X chromosome location. Two BACs carrying the mouse Jarid1c gene and adjacent X-inactivated transcripts were randomly integrated into mouse XX embryonic stem cells. Four lines with single-copy, X-linked transgenes were identified, and each was inserted into regions that are normally X-inactivated. As expected for genes that are normally subject to X inactivation, transgene transcripts Tspyl2 and Iqsec2 were X-inactivated. However, allelic expression and RNA/DNA FISH indicate that transgenic Jarid1c escapes X inactivation. Therefore, transgenes at 4 different X locations recapitulate endogenous inactive X expression patterns. We conclude that escape from X inactivation is an intrinsic feature of the Jarid1c locus and functionally delimit this escape domain to the 112-kb maximum overlap of the BACs tested. Additionally, although extensive chromatin differences normally distinguish active and inactive loci, unmodified BACs direct proper inactive X expression patterns, establishing that primary DNA sequence alone, in a chromosome position-independent manner, is sufficient to determine X chromosome inactivation status. This transgene approach will enable further dissection of key elements of escape domains and allow rigorous testing of specific genomic sequences on inactive X expression.",
author = "Nan Li and Laura Carrel",
year = "2008",
month = "11",
day = "4",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.0807765105",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "105",
pages = "17055--17060",
journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America",
issn = "0027-8424",
number = "44",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Escape from X chromosome inactivation is an intrinsic property of the Jarid1c locus

AU - Li, Nan

AU - Carrel, Laura

PY - 2008/11/4

Y1 - 2008/11/4

N2 - Although most genes on one X chromosome in mammalian females are silenced by X inactivation, some "escape" X inactivation and are expressed from both active and inactive Xs. How these escape genes are transcribed from a largely inactivated chromosome is not fully understood, but underlying genomic sequences are likely involved. We developed a transgene approach to ask whether an escape locus is autonomous or is instead influenced by X chromosome location. Two BACs carrying the mouse Jarid1c gene and adjacent X-inactivated transcripts were randomly integrated into mouse XX embryonic stem cells. Four lines with single-copy, X-linked transgenes were identified, and each was inserted into regions that are normally X-inactivated. As expected for genes that are normally subject to X inactivation, transgene transcripts Tspyl2 and Iqsec2 were X-inactivated. However, allelic expression and RNA/DNA FISH indicate that transgenic Jarid1c escapes X inactivation. Therefore, transgenes at 4 different X locations recapitulate endogenous inactive X expression patterns. We conclude that escape from X inactivation is an intrinsic feature of the Jarid1c locus and functionally delimit this escape domain to the 112-kb maximum overlap of the BACs tested. Additionally, although extensive chromatin differences normally distinguish active and inactive loci, unmodified BACs direct proper inactive X expression patterns, establishing that primary DNA sequence alone, in a chromosome position-independent manner, is sufficient to determine X chromosome inactivation status. This transgene approach will enable further dissection of key elements of escape domains and allow rigorous testing of specific genomic sequences on inactive X expression.

AB - Although most genes on one X chromosome in mammalian females are silenced by X inactivation, some "escape" X inactivation and are expressed from both active and inactive Xs. How these escape genes are transcribed from a largely inactivated chromosome is not fully understood, but underlying genomic sequences are likely involved. We developed a transgene approach to ask whether an escape locus is autonomous or is instead influenced by X chromosome location. Two BACs carrying the mouse Jarid1c gene and adjacent X-inactivated transcripts were randomly integrated into mouse XX embryonic stem cells. Four lines with single-copy, X-linked transgenes were identified, and each was inserted into regions that are normally X-inactivated. As expected for genes that are normally subject to X inactivation, transgene transcripts Tspyl2 and Iqsec2 were X-inactivated. However, allelic expression and RNA/DNA FISH indicate that transgenic Jarid1c escapes X inactivation. Therefore, transgenes at 4 different X locations recapitulate endogenous inactive X expression patterns. We conclude that escape from X inactivation is an intrinsic feature of the Jarid1c locus and functionally delimit this escape domain to the 112-kb maximum overlap of the BACs tested. Additionally, although extensive chromatin differences normally distinguish active and inactive loci, unmodified BACs direct proper inactive X expression patterns, establishing that primary DNA sequence alone, in a chromosome position-independent manner, is sufficient to determine X chromosome inactivation status. This transgene approach will enable further dissection of key elements of escape domains and allow rigorous testing of specific genomic sequences on inactive X expression.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=55949099351&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=55949099351&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.0807765105

DO - 10.1073/pnas.0807765105

M3 - Article

C2 - 18971342

AN - SCOPUS:55949099351

VL - 105

SP - 17055

EP - 17060

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

SN - 0027-8424

IS - 44

ER -