The purpose of this study was to establish empirical benchmarks for the rate of student discipline in public alternative schools in the United States and to identify normative rates of disciplinary infractions across different grade levels, gender, and racial groups. Participants included 15,846 students attending 108 alternative schools in 73 school districts across 22 states. Results revealed that gender and race-based disparities in discipline are also present in alternative school settings but at much lower levels than observed in regular education settings. Although daily referral rates are higher on average, the proportion of students considered high risk was substantially lower in alternative middle and high schools compared with nonalternative settings. Schoolwide disciplinary referral rates and benchmark averages disaggregated by grade level, race, and gender are reported.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental and Educational Psychology