Estimates of linkage disequilibrium and the recombination parameter determined from segregating nucleotide sites in the alcohol dehydrogenase region of Drosophila pseudoobscura

S. W. Schaeffer, E. L. Miller

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Abstract

The alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) region of Drosophila pseudoobscura, which includes the two genes Adh and Adh-Dup, was used to examine the pattern and organization of linkage disequilibrium among pairs of segregating nucleotide sites. A collection of 99 strains from the geographic range of D. pseudoobscura were nucleotide-sequenced with polymerase chain reaction- mediated techniques. All pairs of the 359 polymorphic sites in the 3.5-kb Adh region were tested for significant linkage disequilibrium with Fisher's exact test. Of the 74,278 pairwise comparisons of segregating sites, 127 were in significant linkage disequilibrium at the 5% level. The distribution of five linkage disequilibrium estimators D(ij), D2, r(ij), r2 and Dij were compared to theoretical distributions. The observed distributions of D(ij), D2, r(ij) and r2 were consistent with the theoretical distribution given an infinite sites model. The observed distribution of Dij differed from the theoretical distribution because of an excess of values at -1 and 1. No spatial pattern was observed in the linkage disequilibrium pattern in the Adh region except for two clusters of sites nonrandomly associated in the adult intron and intron 2 of Adh. The magnitude of linkage disequilibrium decreases significantly as nucleotide distance increases, or a distance effect. Adh- Dup had a larger estimate of the recombination parameter, 4Nc, than Adh, where N is the effective population size and c is the recombination rate. A comparison of the mutation and recombination parameters shows that 7-17 recombination events occur for each mutation event. The heterogeneous estimates of the recombination parameter and the inverse relationship between linkage disequilibrium and nucleotide distance are no longer significant when the two clusters of Adh intron sites are excluded from analyses. The most likely explanation for the two clusters of linkage disequilibria is epistatic selection between sites in the cluster to maintain pre-mRNA secondary structure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)541-552
Number of pages12
JournalGenetics
Volume135
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1993

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics

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