Abstract

Planned beneficial re-use of water has become an increasingly common conservation practice worldwide, sparking questions about the degree of water treatment needed to mitigate negative environmental impacts. Since the early 1980s, as an alternative to surface discharge, the Pennsylvania State University has spray-irrigated all of its treated wastewater effluent via land application onto an environmental setting known as the “Living Filter” site (∼245 ha). The impacts of spray irrigation on nearby ephemeral wetlands, known as vernal pools, were explored. The pools gain water from both natural rainfall and spray-irrigation of the University's treated wastewater. The occurrence and persistence of estrogens in three vernal pools were quantified by analyzing >137 water samples collected from the pools over an eight-week period coincident with the development period of native amphibian larvae. Additionally, dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, water level, water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and rainfall data were measured continuously throughout the study period within each pool. Further, the treated wastewater effluent was sampled during each weekly spray-irrigation event. Estrone was detected in nearly 100% of the vernal pool samples, with concentrations up to 6.2 ng L−1. Additionally, 17α-estradiol was not detected in the wastewater effluent, but was present in 52% of the vernal pool samples. 17β-estradiol, estriol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol were detected in fewer than 10% of the vernal pool samples. The findings of this research have important implications for management practices that can help protect these critical habitats.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)103-112
Number of pages10
JournalAgriculture, Ecosystems and Environment
Volume257
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018

Fingerprint

vernal pools
wastewater irrigation
ephemeral pool
estrogens
persistence
spray
irrigation
sprinkler irrigation
wastewater
effluents
effluent
estradiol
estriol
sampling
rainfall
land application
estrone
conservation practices
water
redox potential

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

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title = "Estrogen occurrence and persistence in vernal pools impacted by wastewater irrigation practices",
abstract = "Planned beneficial re-use of water has become an increasingly common conservation practice worldwide, sparking questions about the degree of water treatment needed to mitigate negative environmental impacts. Since the early 1980s, as an alternative to surface discharge, the Pennsylvania State University has spray-irrigated all of its treated wastewater effluent via land application onto an environmental setting known as the “Living Filter” site (∼245 ha). The impacts of spray irrigation on nearby ephemeral wetlands, known as vernal pools, were explored. The pools gain water from both natural rainfall and spray-irrigation of the University's treated wastewater. The occurrence and persistence of estrogens in three vernal pools were quantified by analyzing >137 water samples collected from the pools over an eight-week period coincident with the development period of native amphibian larvae. Additionally, dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, water level, water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and rainfall data were measured continuously throughout the study period within each pool. Further, the treated wastewater effluent was sampled during each weekly spray-irrigation event. Estrone was detected in nearly 100{\%} of the vernal pool samples, with concentrations up to 6.2 ng L−1. Additionally, 17α-estradiol was not detected in the wastewater effluent, but was present in 52{\%} of the vernal pool samples. 17β-estradiol, estriol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol were detected in fewer than 10{\%} of the vernal pool samples. The findings of this research have important implications for management practices that can help protect these critical habitats.",
author = "Odette Mina and Gall, {Heather Elise} and Elliott, {Herschel Adams} and Watson, {John Earl} and Mashtare, {Michael L.} and Langkilde, {Tracy Lee} and Harper, {Jeremy Paul} and Boyer, {Elizabeth Weeks}",
year = "2018",
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doi = "10.1016/j.agee.2018.01.022",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Estrogen occurrence and persistence in vernal pools impacted by wastewater irrigation practices

AU - Mina, Odette

AU - Gall, Heather Elise

AU - Elliott, Herschel Adams

AU - Watson, John Earl

AU - Mashtare, Michael L.

AU - Langkilde, Tracy Lee

AU - Harper, Jeremy Paul

AU - Boyer, Elizabeth Weeks

PY - 2018/4/1

Y1 - 2018/4/1

N2 - Planned beneficial re-use of water has become an increasingly common conservation practice worldwide, sparking questions about the degree of water treatment needed to mitigate negative environmental impacts. Since the early 1980s, as an alternative to surface discharge, the Pennsylvania State University has spray-irrigated all of its treated wastewater effluent via land application onto an environmental setting known as the “Living Filter” site (∼245 ha). The impacts of spray irrigation on nearby ephemeral wetlands, known as vernal pools, were explored. The pools gain water from both natural rainfall and spray-irrigation of the University's treated wastewater. The occurrence and persistence of estrogens in three vernal pools were quantified by analyzing >137 water samples collected from the pools over an eight-week period coincident with the development period of native amphibian larvae. Additionally, dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, water level, water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and rainfall data were measured continuously throughout the study period within each pool. Further, the treated wastewater effluent was sampled during each weekly spray-irrigation event. Estrone was detected in nearly 100% of the vernal pool samples, with concentrations up to 6.2 ng L−1. Additionally, 17α-estradiol was not detected in the wastewater effluent, but was present in 52% of the vernal pool samples. 17β-estradiol, estriol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol were detected in fewer than 10% of the vernal pool samples. The findings of this research have important implications for management practices that can help protect these critical habitats.

AB - Planned beneficial re-use of water has become an increasingly common conservation practice worldwide, sparking questions about the degree of water treatment needed to mitigate negative environmental impacts. Since the early 1980s, as an alternative to surface discharge, the Pennsylvania State University has spray-irrigated all of its treated wastewater effluent via land application onto an environmental setting known as the “Living Filter” site (∼245 ha). The impacts of spray irrigation on nearby ephemeral wetlands, known as vernal pools, were explored. The pools gain water from both natural rainfall and spray-irrigation of the University's treated wastewater. The occurrence and persistence of estrogens in three vernal pools were quantified by analyzing >137 water samples collected from the pools over an eight-week period coincident with the development period of native amphibian larvae. Additionally, dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, water level, water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and rainfall data were measured continuously throughout the study period within each pool. Further, the treated wastewater effluent was sampled during each weekly spray-irrigation event. Estrone was detected in nearly 100% of the vernal pool samples, with concentrations up to 6.2 ng L−1. Additionally, 17α-estradiol was not detected in the wastewater effluent, but was present in 52% of the vernal pool samples. 17β-estradiol, estriol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol were detected in fewer than 10% of the vernal pool samples. The findings of this research have important implications for management practices that can help protect these critical habitats.

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