Ethnicity as a variable in leisure research

Chieh Lu Li, Garry E. Chick, Harry C. Zinn, James D. Absher, Alan R. Graefe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of ethnicity as a construct in leisure research. In particular, we are interested in the degree to which presumed ethnic groups exhibit internal cultural homogeneity. In 2002, the visitors to the Angeles National Forest (ANF) near metropolitan Los Angeles were surveyed. Using purposive sampling at sites known to be heavily used by visitors with diverse ethnic backgrounds, we obtained a sample of 444 Anglos, 312 Hispanics, and 319 Asians (overall n = 1,174). We examined whether the three nominal ethnic groups, Anglos, Hispanics, and Asians, were homogeneous in terms of cultural values as measured by Hofstede's (1980) instrument. We assume that if distinctive ethnic subcultures exist then they should be identifiable by specific measures of languages, religion, family structure, cultural values, and the like. We used cultural consensus analyses to test the homogeneity of the three ethnic groups. The results of cultural consensus analyses showed that none of the three ethnic groups and none of the subgroups we examined within the three ethnic groups were homogeneous in terms of the cultural values. Discussion of the findings and research implications are suggested.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)514-545
Number of pages32
JournalJournal of Leisure Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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