Etiological subgroups of small-for-gestational-age: Differential neurodevelopmental outcomes

Xiuhong Li, Rina D. Eiden, Leonard H. Epstein, Edmond D. Shenassa, Chuanbo Xie, Xiaozhong Wen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: It remains unclear why substantial variations in neurodevelopmental outcomes exist within small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children. We prospectively compared 5-y neurodevelopmental outcomes across SGA etiological subgroups. Methods: Children born SGA (N = 1050) from U.S. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007) was divided into etiological subgroups by each of 7 well-established prenatal risk factors. We fit linear regression models to compare 5-y reading, math, gross motor and fine motor scores across SGA subgroups, adjusting for socio-demographic confounders. Results: Compared to singleton SGA subgroup, multiple-birth SGA subgroup had lower mean reading (adjusted mean difference, -4.08 [95% confidence interval, -6.10, -2.06]) and math (-2.22 [-3.61, -0.84]) scores. These disadvantages in reading and math existed only among multiple-birth SGA subgroup without ovulation stimulation (reading, -4.50 [-6.64, -2.36]; math, -2.91 [-4.37, -1.44]), but not among those with ovulation stimulation (reading, -2.33 [-6.24, 1.57]; math 0.63 [-1.86, 3.12]). Compared to singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain, singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) had lower mean reading (-4.81 [-8.50, -1.12]) and math (-2.95 [-5.51, -0.38]) scores. These differences were not mediated by Apgar score. Conclusions: Multiple-birth SGA subgroups (vs. singleton SGA) or singleton SGA subgroup with cooccurrence of smoking and inadequate GWG (vs. singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain) have poorer cognitive development up to 5 y.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0160677
JournalPloS one
Volume11
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

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