A new derivation of local available energy for a compressible, multicomponent fluid that allows for frictional, diabatic, and chemical (e.g., phase changes) processes is presented. The available energy is defined relative to an arbitrary isothermal atmosphere in hydrostatic balance with uniform total chemical potentials. It is shown that the available energy can be divided into available potential, available elastic, and available chemical energies. Each is shown to be positive definite. The general formulation is applied to the specific case of an idealized, moist, atmospheric sounding with liquid water and ice. The available energy is dominated by available potential energy in the troposphere but available elastic energy dominates in the upper stratosphere. The available chemical energy is significant in the lower troposphere where it dominates the available elastic energy. The total available energy increases with increasing water content.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science