The effects of biologically active carbon (BAC) filtration on haloacetic acid (HAA) levels in plant effluents and distribution systems were investigated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Information Collection Rule (ICR) database. The results showed that average HAA5 concentrations in all locations were 20. 4 μg·L -1 and 29. 6 μg·L -1 in ICR plants with granular activated carbon (GAC) and ICR plants without GAC process, respectively. For plants without GAC, the highest HAA levels were observed in the quarters of April to June and July to September. However, for plants with GAC, the highest HAA levels were observed in the quarters of April to June and January to March. This HAA level profile inversely correlated well with water temperature, or biologic activity. For GAC plants, simulated distribution samples matched well with distribution system equivalent samples for Cl 3AA and THMs. For plants with and without GAC, simulated distribution samples overestimated readily biodegradable HAAs in distribution systems. The study indicated that through HAA biodegradation, GAC process plays an important role in lowering HAA levels in finished drinking water.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering in China|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2011|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Science(all)