Evaluating a range of learning schedules: hybrid training schedules may be as good as or better than distributed practice for some tasks

Jaehyon Paik, Frank E. Ritter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations


We investigated theoretically and empirically a range of training schedules on tasks with three knowledge types: declarative, procedural, and perceptual-motor. We predicted performance for 6435 potential eight-block training schedules with ACT-R's declarative memory equations. Hybrid training schedules (schedules consisting of distributed and massed practice) were predicted to produce better performance than purely distributed or massed training schedules. The results of an empirical study (N = 40) testing four exemplar schedules indicated a more complex picture. There were no statistical differences among the groups in the declarative and procedural tasks. We also found that participants in the hybrid practice groups produced reliably better performance than ones in the distributed practice group for the perceptual-motor task – the results indicate training schedules with some spacing and some intensiveness may lead to better performance, particularly for perceptual-motor tasks, and that tasks with mixed types of knowledge might be better taught with a hybrid schedule.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)276-290
Number of pages15
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2016


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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