Evaluation of ice adhesion strength on erosion resistant materials

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Coating systems based on titanium nitride (TiN) applied via cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD) were developed for rotorcraft erosion caps to protect against sand and rain erosion. Erosion resistant materials must also be compatible with ice protection systems. The ice adhesion strength performance of titanium nitride and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) are evaluated experimentally and compared to the ice adhesion strength of uncoated metallic materials currently used on rotor blade leading edge caps: stainless steel 430, Inconel 625, and titanium grade 2. Experimental studies presented in this paper investigate which environmental and material parameters are most influential on impact ice adhesion strength. The effects of median volumetric diameter, liquid water content, ambient temperature, surface roughness, and material grain direction were tested on stainless steel 430. Tests revealed that surface roughness and temperature have the greatest effect on ice adhesion strength. There was an increase in adhesion strength of 670% from -8°C to -16°C and 250% increase from 24 Ra μin to 105 Ra μin. An increase in water droplet size from 20 μm to 40 μm decreased the ice adhesion strength by 65%. The adhesion strength increased 15% when shear forces were applied 90° with respect to the grain direction as compared to a 0° loading configuration. While inside the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 25 and Part 29 Appendix C icing envelop for liquid water content, an increase from 0.5 to 2 g/m3 had a 7% reduction in ice adhesion strength. A test matrix to evaluate ice adhesion strength of erosion resistant materials was developed, investigating the effects of temperature and coating surface roughness. An empirical extrapolation method to predict ice adhesion strength with varying temperature is presented and validated on metallic materials. The average ice adhesion strength over the tested conditions for the nitride-based coatings was 51.5% higher than the uncoated metallic materials. Titanium aluminum nitride has the highest average adhesion strength of 75.1 psi and titanium grade 2 has the lowest with 36.9 psi over all of the test conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference
StatePublished - Aug 15 2013
Event54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference - Boston, MA, United States
Duration: Apr 8 2013Apr 11 2013

Other

Other54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference
CountryUnited States
CityBoston, MA
Period4/8/134/11/13

Fingerprint

Bond strength (materials)
Ice
Erosion
Titanium
Titanium nitride
Aluminum nitride
Surface roughness
Stainless Steel
Coatings
Water content
Stainless steel
Temperature
Physical vapor deposition
Liquids
Extrapolation
Nitrides
Aviation
Turbomachine blades
Rain
Sand

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Architecture
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Soltis, J., Palacios, J., Eden, T. J., & Wolfe, D. E. (2013). Evaluation of ice adhesion strength on erosion resistant materials. In 54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference [AIAA 2013-1509]
Soltis, Jared ; Palacios, Jose ; Eden, Timothy John ; Wolfe, Douglas Edward. / Evaluation of ice adhesion strength on erosion resistant materials. 54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference. 2013.
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title = "Evaluation of ice adhesion strength on erosion resistant materials",
abstract = "Coating systems based on titanium nitride (TiN) applied via cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD) were developed for rotorcraft erosion caps to protect against sand and rain erosion. Erosion resistant materials must also be compatible with ice protection systems. The ice adhesion strength performance of titanium nitride and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) are evaluated experimentally and compared to the ice adhesion strength of uncoated metallic materials currently used on rotor blade leading edge caps: stainless steel 430, Inconel 625, and titanium grade 2. Experimental studies presented in this paper investigate which environmental and material parameters are most influential on impact ice adhesion strength. The effects of median volumetric diameter, liquid water content, ambient temperature, surface roughness, and material grain direction were tested on stainless steel 430. Tests revealed that surface roughness and temperature have the greatest effect on ice adhesion strength. There was an increase in adhesion strength of 670{\%} from -8°C to -16°C and 250{\%} increase from 24 Ra μin to 105 Ra μin. An increase in water droplet size from 20 μm to 40 μm decreased the ice adhesion strength by 65{\%}. The adhesion strength increased 15{\%} when shear forces were applied 90° with respect to the grain direction as compared to a 0° loading configuration. While inside the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 25 and Part 29 Appendix C icing envelop for liquid water content, an increase from 0.5 to 2 g/m3 had a 7{\%} reduction in ice adhesion strength. A test matrix to evaluate ice adhesion strength of erosion resistant materials was developed, investigating the effects of temperature and coating surface roughness. An empirical extrapolation method to predict ice adhesion strength with varying temperature is presented and validated on metallic materials. The average ice adhesion strength over the tested conditions for the nitride-based coatings was 51.5{\%} higher than the uncoated metallic materials. Titanium aluminum nitride has the highest average adhesion strength of 75.1 psi and titanium grade 2 has the lowest with 36.9 psi over all of the test conditions.",
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year = "2013",
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Soltis, J, Palacios, J, Eden, TJ & Wolfe, DE 2013, Evaluation of ice adhesion strength on erosion resistant materials. in 54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference., AIAA 2013-1509, 54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, Boston, MA, United States, 4/8/13.

Evaluation of ice adhesion strength on erosion resistant materials. / Soltis, Jared; Palacios, Jose; Eden, Timothy John; Wolfe, Douglas Edward.

54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference. 2013. AIAA 2013-1509.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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AU - Soltis, Jared

AU - Palacios, Jose

AU - Eden, Timothy John

AU - Wolfe, Douglas Edward

PY - 2013/8/15

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N2 - Coating systems based on titanium nitride (TiN) applied via cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD) were developed for rotorcraft erosion caps to protect against sand and rain erosion. Erosion resistant materials must also be compatible with ice protection systems. The ice adhesion strength performance of titanium nitride and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) are evaluated experimentally and compared to the ice adhesion strength of uncoated metallic materials currently used on rotor blade leading edge caps: stainless steel 430, Inconel 625, and titanium grade 2. Experimental studies presented in this paper investigate which environmental and material parameters are most influential on impact ice adhesion strength. The effects of median volumetric diameter, liquid water content, ambient temperature, surface roughness, and material grain direction were tested on stainless steel 430. Tests revealed that surface roughness and temperature have the greatest effect on ice adhesion strength. There was an increase in adhesion strength of 670% from -8°C to -16°C and 250% increase from 24 Ra μin to 105 Ra μin. An increase in water droplet size from 20 μm to 40 μm decreased the ice adhesion strength by 65%. The adhesion strength increased 15% when shear forces were applied 90° with respect to the grain direction as compared to a 0° loading configuration. While inside the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 25 and Part 29 Appendix C icing envelop for liquid water content, an increase from 0.5 to 2 g/m3 had a 7% reduction in ice adhesion strength. A test matrix to evaluate ice adhesion strength of erosion resistant materials was developed, investigating the effects of temperature and coating surface roughness. An empirical extrapolation method to predict ice adhesion strength with varying temperature is presented and validated on metallic materials. The average ice adhesion strength over the tested conditions for the nitride-based coatings was 51.5% higher than the uncoated metallic materials. Titanium aluminum nitride has the highest average adhesion strength of 75.1 psi and titanium grade 2 has the lowest with 36.9 psi over all of the test conditions.

AB - Coating systems based on titanium nitride (TiN) applied via cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD) were developed for rotorcraft erosion caps to protect against sand and rain erosion. Erosion resistant materials must also be compatible with ice protection systems. The ice adhesion strength performance of titanium nitride and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) are evaluated experimentally and compared to the ice adhesion strength of uncoated metallic materials currently used on rotor blade leading edge caps: stainless steel 430, Inconel 625, and titanium grade 2. Experimental studies presented in this paper investigate which environmental and material parameters are most influential on impact ice adhesion strength. The effects of median volumetric diameter, liquid water content, ambient temperature, surface roughness, and material grain direction were tested on stainless steel 430. Tests revealed that surface roughness and temperature have the greatest effect on ice adhesion strength. There was an increase in adhesion strength of 670% from -8°C to -16°C and 250% increase from 24 Ra μin to 105 Ra μin. An increase in water droplet size from 20 μm to 40 μm decreased the ice adhesion strength by 65%. The adhesion strength increased 15% when shear forces were applied 90° with respect to the grain direction as compared to a 0° loading configuration. While inside the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 25 and Part 29 Appendix C icing envelop for liquid water content, an increase from 0.5 to 2 g/m3 had a 7% reduction in ice adhesion strength. A test matrix to evaluate ice adhesion strength of erosion resistant materials was developed, investigating the effects of temperature and coating surface roughness. An empirical extrapolation method to predict ice adhesion strength with varying temperature is presented and validated on metallic materials. The average ice adhesion strength over the tested conditions for the nitride-based coatings was 51.5% higher than the uncoated metallic materials. Titanium aluminum nitride has the highest average adhesion strength of 75.1 psi and titanium grade 2 has the lowest with 36.9 psi over all of the test conditions.

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M3 - Conference contribution

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BT - 54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference

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Soltis J, Palacios J, Eden TJ, Wolfe DE. Evaluation of ice adhesion strength on erosion resistant materials. In 54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference. 2013. AIAA 2013-1509