Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11: Comparison of 13 global ocean models

J. C. Dutay, J. C. Orr, P. Monfray, J. L. Bullister, S. C. Doney, M. W. Hecht, K. Lindsay, R. Najjar, K. Caldeira, J. M. Campin, H. Drange, Y. Gao, M. Follows, J. C. Marshall, N. Gruber, J. Sarmiento, R. Slater, A. Ishida, Y. Yamanaka, F. JoosG. K. Plattner, G. Madec, E. Maier-Reimer, R. J. Matear, R. Schlitzer, M. F. Weirig, I. J. Totterdell, A. Yool

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We compared the 13 models participating in the Ocean Carbon Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP) with regards to their skill in matching observed distributions of CFC-11. This analysis characterizes the abilities of these models to ventilate the ocean on timescales relevant for anthropogenic CO2 uptake. We found a large range in the modeled global inventory (±30%), mainly due to differences in ventilation from the high latitudes. In the Southern Ocean, models differ particularly in the longitudinal distribution of the CFC uptake in the intermediate water, whereas the latitudinal distribution is mainly controlled by the subgrid-scale parameterization. Models with isopycnal diffusion and eddy-induced velocity parameterization produce more realistic intermediate water ventilation. Deep and bottom water ventilation also varies substantially between the models. Models coupled to a sea-ice model systematically provide more realistic AABW formation source region; however these same models also largely overestimate AABW ventilation if no specific parameterization of brine rejection during sea-ice formation is included. In the North Pacific Ocean, all models exhibit a systematic large underestimation of the CFC uptake in the thermocline of the subtropical gyre, while no systematic difference toward the observations is found in the subpolar gyre. In the North Atlantic Ocean, the CFC uptake is globally underestimated in subsurface. In the deep ocean, all but the adjoint model, failed to produce the two recently ventilated branches observed in the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Furthermore, simulated transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) is too sluggish in all but the isopycnal model, where it is too rapid. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-120
Number of pages32
JournalOcean Modelling
Volume4
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002

Fingerprint

Chlorofluorocarbons
CFC
global ocean
Ventilation
ventilation
ocean
Parameterization
parameterization
Sea ice
intermediate water
gyre
comparison
evaluation
sea ice
Water
North Atlantic Deep Water
western boundary current
thermocline
bottom water
brine

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Oceanography
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

Dutay, J. C., Orr, J. C., Monfray, P., Bullister, J. L., Doney, S. C., Hecht, M. W., ... Yool, A. (2002). Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11: Comparison of 13 global ocean models. Ocean Modelling, 4(2), 89-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1463-5003(01)00013-0
Dutay, J. C. ; Orr, J. C. ; Monfray, P. ; Bullister, J. L. ; Doney, S. C. ; Hecht, M. W. ; Lindsay, K. ; Najjar, R. ; Caldeira, K. ; Campin, J. M. ; Drange, H. ; Gao, Y. ; Follows, M. ; Marshall, J. C. ; Gruber, N. ; Sarmiento, J. ; Slater, R. ; Ishida, A. ; Yamanaka, Y. ; Joos, F. ; Plattner, G. K. ; Madec, G. ; Maier-Reimer, E. ; Matear, R. J. ; Schlitzer, R. ; Weirig, M. F. ; Totterdell, I. J. ; Yool, A. / Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11 : Comparison of 13 global ocean models. In: Ocean Modelling. 2002 ; Vol. 4, No. 2. pp. 89-120.
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abstract = "We compared the 13 models participating in the Ocean Carbon Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP) with regards to their skill in matching observed distributions of CFC-11. This analysis characterizes the abilities of these models to ventilate the ocean on timescales relevant for anthropogenic CO2 uptake. We found a large range in the modeled global inventory (±30{\%}), mainly due to differences in ventilation from the high latitudes. In the Southern Ocean, models differ particularly in the longitudinal distribution of the CFC uptake in the intermediate water, whereas the latitudinal distribution is mainly controlled by the subgrid-scale parameterization. Models with isopycnal diffusion and eddy-induced velocity parameterization produce more realistic intermediate water ventilation. Deep and bottom water ventilation also varies substantially between the models. Models coupled to a sea-ice model systematically provide more realistic AABW formation source region; however these same models also largely overestimate AABW ventilation if no specific parameterization of brine rejection during sea-ice formation is included. In the North Pacific Ocean, all models exhibit a systematic large underestimation of the CFC uptake in the thermocline of the subtropical gyre, while no systematic difference toward the observations is found in the subpolar gyre. In the North Atlantic Ocean, the CFC uptake is globally underestimated in subsurface. In the deep ocean, all but the adjoint model, failed to produce the two recently ventilated branches observed in the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Furthermore, simulated transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) is too sluggish in all but the isopycnal model, where it is too rapid. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.",
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Dutay, JC, Orr, JC, Monfray, P, Bullister, JL, Doney, SC, Hecht, MW, Lindsay, K, Najjar, R, Caldeira, K, Campin, JM, Drange, H, Gao, Y, Follows, M, Marshall, JC, Gruber, N, Sarmiento, J, Slater, R, Ishida, A, Yamanaka, Y, Joos, F, Plattner, GK, Madec, G, Maier-Reimer, E, Matear, RJ, Schlitzer, R, Weirig, MF, Totterdell, IJ & Yool, A 2002, 'Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11: Comparison of 13 global ocean models', Ocean Modelling, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 89-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1463-5003(01)00013-0

Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11 : Comparison of 13 global ocean models. / Dutay, J. C.; Orr, J. C.; Monfray, P.; Bullister, J. L.; Doney, S. C.; Hecht, M. W.; Lindsay, K.; Najjar, R.; Caldeira, K.; Campin, J. M.; Drange, H.; Gao, Y.; Follows, M.; Marshall, J. C.; Gruber, N.; Sarmiento, J.; Slater, R.; Ishida, A.; Yamanaka, Y.; Joos, F.; Plattner, G. K.; Madec, G.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Matear, R. J.; Schlitzer, R.; Weirig, M. F.; Totterdell, I. J.; Yool, A.

In: Ocean Modelling, Vol. 4, No. 2, 01.01.2002, p. 89-120.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11

T2 - Comparison of 13 global ocean models

AU - Dutay, J. C.

AU - Orr, J. C.

AU - Monfray, P.

AU - Bullister, J. L.

AU - Doney, S. C.

AU - Hecht, M. W.

AU - Lindsay, K.

AU - Najjar, R.

AU - Caldeira, K.

AU - Campin, J. M.

AU - Drange, H.

AU - Gao, Y.

AU - Follows, M.

AU - Marshall, J. C.

AU - Gruber, N.

AU - Sarmiento, J.

AU - Slater, R.

AU - Ishida, A.

AU - Yamanaka, Y.

AU - Joos, F.

AU - Plattner, G. K.

AU - Madec, G.

AU - Maier-Reimer, E.

AU - Matear, R. J.

AU - Schlitzer, R.

AU - Weirig, M. F.

AU - Totterdell, I. J.

AU - Yool, A.

PY - 2002/1/1

Y1 - 2002/1/1

N2 - We compared the 13 models participating in the Ocean Carbon Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP) with regards to their skill in matching observed distributions of CFC-11. This analysis characterizes the abilities of these models to ventilate the ocean on timescales relevant for anthropogenic CO2 uptake. We found a large range in the modeled global inventory (±30%), mainly due to differences in ventilation from the high latitudes. In the Southern Ocean, models differ particularly in the longitudinal distribution of the CFC uptake in the intermediate water, whereas the latitudinal distribution is mainly controlled by the subgrid-scale parameterization. Models with isopycnal diffusion and eddy-induced velocity parameterization produce more realistic intermediate water ventilation. Deep and bottom water ventilation also varies substantially between the models. Models coupled to a sea-ice model systematically provide more realistic AABW formation source region; however these same models also largely overestimate AABW ventilation if no specific parameterization of brine rejection during sea-ice formation is included. In the North Pacific Ocean, all models exhibit a systematic large underestimation of the CFC uptake in the thermocline of the subtropical gyre, while no systematic difference toward the observations is found in the subpolar gyre. In the North Atlantic Ocean, the CFC uptake is globally underestimated in subsurface. In the deep ocean, all but the adjoint model, failed to produce the two recently ventilated branches observed in the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Furthermore, simulated transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) is too sluggish in all but the isopycnal model, where it is too rapid. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

AB - We compared the 13 models participating in the Ocean Carbon Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP) with regards to their skill in matching observed distributions of CFC-11. This analysis characterizes the abilities of these models to ventilate the ocean on timescales relevant for anthropogenic CO2 uptake. We found a large range in the modeled global inventory (±30%), mainly due to differences in ventilation from the high latitudes. In the Southern Ocean, models differ particularly in the longitudinal distribution of the CFC uptake in the intermediate water, whereas the latitudinal distribution is mainly controlled by the subgrid-scale parameterization. Models with isopycnal diffusion and eddy-induced velocity parameterization produce more realistic intermediate water ventilation. Deep and bottom water ventilation also varies substantially between the models. Models coupled to a sea-ice model systematically provide more realistic AABW formation source region; however these same models also largely overestimate AABW ventilation if no specific parameterization of brine rejection during sea-ice formation is included. In the North Pacific Ocean, all models exhibit a systematic large underestimation of the CFC uptake in the thermocline of the subtropical gyre, while no systematic difference toward the observations is found in the subpolar gyre. In the North Atlantic Ocean, the CFC uptake is globally underestimated in subsurface. In the deep ocean, all but the adjoint model, failed to produce the two recently ventilated branches observed in the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Furthermore, simulated transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) is too sluggish in all but the isopycnal model, where it is too rapid. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

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