Cocoa roasting produces and enhances distinct flavor of chocolate and acts as a critical control point for inactivation of foodborne pathogens in chocolate production. In this study, the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Oranienburg strain was assessed on whole cocoa beans using roasting protocols relevant to the fine chocolate industry. Beans were inoculated with 107–108 log10 CFU/bean of Salmonella Oranienburg and roasted at 100–150°C for 2–100 min. A greater than 5 log10 reduction of S. Oranienburg was experimentally achieved after 10-min roasting at 150°C. Data were fitted using log-linear and Weibull models. The log-linear models indicated that the roasting times (D) needed to achieve a decimal reduction of Salmonella at 100, 110, 115, 120, 130, and 140°C were 33.34, 18.57, 12.92, 10.50, 4.20, and 1.90 min, respectively. A Weibull model indicated a decrease in the Salmonella inactivation rate over time (β < 1). Statistical analysis indicated that the Weibull model fitted the data better compared to a log-linear model. These data demonstrate the efficacy of cocoa roasting in inactivation of Salmonella and may be used to guide food safety decision-making.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)