Evaluation of virulence of Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae isolates

M. R. Bonde, S. E. Nester, C. N. Austin, C. L. Stone, R. D. Frederick, G. L. Hartman, M. R. Miles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

102 Scopus citations

Abstract

Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi and recently discovered for the first time in continental United States, has been of concern to the U.S. agricultural industry for more than 30 years. Since little soybean rust resistance is known, and resistance is often difficult to detect or quantitate, we initiated a project to develop a better, more quantitative, method. The methodology determined the average numbers and diameters of uredinia in lesions that developed on leaves of inoculated plants 14 days after inoculation. It was used to compare virulence of P. pachyrhizi isolates from Asia and Australia and P. meibomiae from Puerto Rico and Brazil, collected as many as 30 years earlier, with isolates of P. pachyrhizi recently collected from Africa or South America. Susceptible reactions to P. pachyrhizi resulted in tan-colored lesions containing 1 to 14 uredinia varying greatly in size within individual lesions. In contrast, on these same genotypes at the same time of year, resistance to other P. pachyrhizi isolates was typified by 0 to 6 small uredinia in reddish-brown to dark-brown lesions. Using appropriate rust resistant and rust susceptible genotypes as standards, examination of uredinia 14 days after inoculation allowed quantitative comparisons of sporulation capacities, one measure of susceptibility or resistance to soybean rust. The study verified the presence and ability to detect all known major genes for resistance to soybean rust in the original sources of resistance. It demonstrated that soybean lines derived from the original PI sources, and presumed to possess the resistance genes, in actuality may lack the gene or express an intermediate reaction to the rust pathogen. We suggest that a determination of numbers and sizes of uredinia will detect both major gene and partial resistance to soybean rust.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)708-716
Number of pages9
JournalPlant disease
Volume90
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science

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