Evidence of previous but not current transmission of chikungunya virus in southern and central Vietnam: Results from a systematic review and a seroprevalence study in four locations

Tran Minh Quan, Huynh Thi Phuong, Nguyen Ha Thao Vy, Nguyen Thi Le Thanh, Nguyen Thi Nam Lien, Tran Thi Kim Hong, Pham Ngoc Dung, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Maciej F. Boni, Hannah E. Clapham

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Abstract

Background: Arbovirus infections are a serious concern in tropical countries due to their high levels of transmission and morbidity. With the outbreaks of chikungunya (CHIKV) in surrounding regions in recent years and the fact that the environment in Vietnam is suitable for the vectors of CHIKV, the possibility of transmission of CHIKV in Vietnam is of great interest. However, information about CHIKV activity in Vietnam remains limited. Methodology: In order to address this question, we performed a systematic review of CHIKV in Vietnam and a CHIKV seroprevalence survey. The seroprevalence survey tested for CHIKV IgG in population serum samples from individuals of all ages in 2015 from four locations in Vietnam. Principal findings: The four locations were An Giang province (n = 137), Ho Chi Minh City (n = 136), Dak Lak province (n = 137), and Hue City (n = 136). The findings give us evidence of some CHIKV activity: 73/546 of overall samples were seropositive (13.4%). The age-adjusted seroprevalences were 12.30% (6.58–18.02), 13.42% (7.16–19.68), 7.97% (3.56–12.38), and 3.72% (1.75–5.69) in An Giang province, Ho Chi Minh City, Dak Lak province, and Hue City respectively. However, the age-stratified seroprevalence suggests that the last transmission ended around 30 years ago, consistent with results from the systematic review. We see no evidence for on-going transmission in three of the locations, though with some evidence of recent exposure in Dak Lak, most likely due to transmission in neighbouring countries. Before the 1980s, when transmission was occurring, we estimate on average 2–4% of the population were infected each year in HCMC and An Giang and Hue (though transmision ended earlier in Hue). We estimate lower transmission in Dak Lak, with around 1% of the population infected each year. Conclusion: In conclusion, we find evidence of past CHIKV transmission in central and southern Vietnam, but no evidence of recent sustained transmission. When transmission of CHIKV did occur, it appeared to be widespread and affect a geographically diverse population. The estimated susceptibility of the population to chikungunya is continually increasing, therefore the possibility of future CHIKV transmission in Vietnam remains.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0006246
JournalPLoS neglected tropical diseases
Volume12
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 9 2018

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Chikungunya virus
Vietnam
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Population
Arbovirus Infections
Disease Outbreaks
Immunoglobulin G
Morbidity

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Quan, Tran Minh ; Phuong, Huynh Thi ; Vy, Nguyen Ha Thao ; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Le ; Lien, Nguyen Thi Nam ; Hong, Tran Thi Kim ; Dung, Pham Ngoc ; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh ; Boni, Maciej F. ; Clapham, Hannah E. / Evidence of previous but not current transmission of chikungunya virus in southern and central Vietnam : Results from a systematic review and a seroprevalence study in four locations. In: PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2018 ; Vol. 12, No. 2.
@article{a44f7a5b80ac4c12a5c9a3b0d157366c,
title = "Evidence of previous but not current transmission of chikungunya virus in southern and central Vietnam: Results from a systematic review and a seroprevalence study in four locations",
abstract = "Background: Arbovirus infections are a serious concern in tropical countries due to their high levels of transmission and morbidity. With the outbreaks of chikungunya (CHIKV) in surrounding regions in recent years and the fact that the environment in Vietnam is suitable for the vectors of CHIKV, the possibility of transmission of CHIKV in Vietnam is of great interest. However, information about CHIKV activity in Vietnam remains limited. Methodology: In order to address this question, we performed a systematic review of CHIKV in Vietnam and a CHIKV seroprevalence survey. The seroprevalence survey tested for CHIKV IgG in population serum samples from individuals of all ages in 2015 from four locations in Vietnam. Principal findings: The four locations were An Giang province (n = 137), Ho Chi Minh City (n = 136), Dak Lak province (n = 137), and Hue City (n = 136). The findings give us evidence of some CHIKV activity: 73/546 of overall samples were seropositive (13.4{\%}). The age-adjusted seroprevalences were 12.30{\%} (6.58–18.02), 13.42{\%} (7.16–19.68), 7.97{\%} (3.56–12.38), and 3.72{\%} (1.75–5.69) in An Giang province, Ho Chi Minh City, Dak Lak province, and Hue City respectively. However, the age-stratified seroprevalence suggests that the last transmission ended around 30 years ago, consistent with results from the systematic review. We see no evidence for on-going transmission in three of the locations, though with some evidence of recent exposure in Dak Lak, most likely due to transmission in neighbouring countries. Before the 1980s, when transmission was occurring, we estimate on average 2–4{\%} of the population were infected each year in HCMC and An Giang and Hue (though transmision ended earlier in Hue). We estimate lower transmission in Dak Lak, with around 1{\%} of the population infected each year. Conclusion: In conclusion, we find evidence of past CHIKV transmission in central and southern Vietnam, but no evidence of recent sustained transmission. When transmission of CHIKV did occur, it appeared to be widespread and affect a geographically diverse population. The estimated susceptibility of the population to chikungunya is continually increasing, therefore the possibility of future CHIKV transmission in Vietnam remains.",
author = "Quan, {Tran Minh} and Phuong, {Huynh Thi} and Vy, {Nguyen Ha Thao} and Thanh, {Nguyen Thi Le} and Lien, {Nguyen Thi Nam} and Hong, {Tran Thi Kim} and Dung, {Pham Ngoc} and Chau, {Nguyen Van Vinh} and Boni, {Maciej F.} and Clapham, {Hannah E.}",
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language = "English (US)",
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Evidence of previous but not current transmission of chikungunya virus in southern and central Vietnam : Results from a systematic review and a seroprevalence study in four locations. / Quan, Tran Minh; Phuong, Huynh Thi; Vy, Nguyen Ha Thao; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Le; Lien, Nguyen Thi Nam; Hong, Tran Thi Kim; Dung, Pham Ngoc; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Boni, Maciej F.; Clapham, Hannah E.

In: PLoS neglected tropical diseases, Vol. 12, No. 2, e0006246, 09.02.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Evidence of previous but not current transmission of chikungunya virus in southern and central Vietnam

T2 - Results from a systematic review and a seroprevalence study in four locations

AU - Quan, Tran Minh

AU - Phuong, Huynh Thi

AU - Vy, Nguyen Ha Thao

AU - Thanh, Nguyen Thi Le

AU - Lien, Nguyen Thi Nam

AU - Hong, Tran Thi Kim

AU - Dung, Pham Ngoc

AU - Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh

AU - Boni, Maciej F.

AU - Clapham, Hannah E.

PY - 2018/2/9

Y1 - 2018/2/9

N2 - Background: Arbovirus infections are a serious concern in tropical countries due to their high levels of transmission and morbidity. With the outbreaks of chikungunya (CHIKV) in surrounding regions in recent years and the fact that the environment in Vietnam is suitable for the vectors of CHIKV, the possibility of transmission of CHIKV in Vietnam is of great interest. However, information about CHIKV activity in Vietnam remains limited. Methodology: In order to address this question, we performed a systematic review of CHIKV in Vietnam and a CHIKV seroprevalence survey. The seroprevalence survey tested for CHIKV IgG in population serum samples from individuals of all ages in 2015 from four locations in Vietnam. Principal findings: The four locations were An Giang province (n = 137), Ho Chi Minh City (n = 136), Dak Lak province (n = 137), and Hue City (n = 136). The findings give us evidence of some CHIKV activity: 73/546 of overall samples were seropositive (13.4%). The age-adjusted seroprevalences were 12.30% (6.58–18.02), 13.42% (7.16–19.68), 7.97% (3.56–12.38), and 3.72% (1.75–5.69) in An Giang province, Ho Chi Minh City, Dak Lak province, and Hue City respectively. However, the age-stratified seroprevalence suggests that the last transmission ended around 30 years ago, consistent with results from the systematic review. We see no evidence for on-going transmission in three of the locations, though with some evidence of recent exposure in Dak Lak, most likely due to transmission in neighbouring countries. Before the 1980s, when transmission was occurring, we estimate on average 2–4% of the population were infected each year in HCMC and An Giang and Hue (though transmision ended earlier in Hue). We estimate lower transmission in Dak Lak, with around 1% of the population infected each year. Conclusion: In conclusion, we find evidence of past CHIKV transmission in central and southern Vietnam, but no evidence of recent sustained transmission. When transmission of CHIKV did occur, it appeared to be widespread and affect a geographically diverse population. The estimated susceptibility of the population to chikungunya is continually increasing, therefore the possibility of future CHIKV transmission in Vietnam remains.

AB - Background: Arbovirus infections are a serious concern in tropical countries due to their high levels of transmission and morbidity. With the outbreaks of chikungunya (CHIKV) in surrounding regions in recent years and the fact that the environment in Vietnam is suitable for the vectors of CHIKV, the possibility of transmission of CHIKV in Vietnam is of great interest. However, information about CHIKV activity in Vietnam remains limited. Methodology: In order to address this question, we performed a systematic review of CHIKV in Vietnam and a CHIKV seroprevalence survey. The seroprevalence survey tested for CHIKV IgG in population serum samples from individuals of all ages in 2015 from four locations in Vietnam. Principal findings: The four locations were An Giang province (n = 137), Ho Chi Minh City (n = 136), Dak Lak province (n = 137), and Hue City (n = 136). The findings give us evidence of some CHIKV activity: 73/546 of overall samples were seropositive (13.4%). The age-adjusted seroprevalences were 12.30% (6.58–18.02), 13.42% (7.16–19.68), 7.97% (3.56–12.38), and 3.72% (1.75–5.69) in An Giang province, Ho Chi Minh City, Dak Lak province, and Hue City respectively. However, the age-stratified seroprevalence suggests that the last transmission ended around 30 years ago, consistent with results from the systematic review. We see no evidence for on-going transmission in three of the locations, though with some evidence of recent exposure in Dak Lak, most likely due to transmission in neighbouring countries. Before the 1980s, when transmission was occurring, we estimate on average 2–4% of the population were infected each year in HCMC and An Giang and Hue (though transmision ended earlier in Hue). We estimate lower transmission in Dak Lak, with around 1% of the population infected each year. Conclusion: In conclusion, we find evidence of past CHIKV transmission in central and southern Vietnam, but no evidence of recent sustained transmission. When transmission of CHIKV did occur, it appeared to be widespread and affect a geographically diverse population. The estimated susceptibility of the population to chikungunya is continually increasing, therefore the possibility of future CHIKV transmission in Vietnam remains.

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