Morphological characters of the Euthyneura available from the literature were re-evaluated in terms of terminology and primary homology. A total of 77 characters and 75 taxa were retained in a data matrix. Several assumptions on character weights and types were tested. In the cladistic analyses, it appeared that the data matrix was highly homoplastic, and only robust nodes (those which were little modified by variations in weight and coding of characters) were retained in a concensus tree. The evolutionary histories of all characters and monophylies of higher euthyneuran taxa were discussed. The following interrelationships of the taxa were obtained in a consensus tree: the clade Heterobranchia includes paraphyletic allogastropod taxa which emerge basally, and the clade Euthyneura. The latter includes the clade Pulmonata and at least 10 opisthobranch clades of unresolved relationship (Thecosomata, Gymnosomata, Acochlidioidea, Pyramidelloidea, Runcinoidea, Cephalaspidea, Sacoglossa, Umbraculoidea, Pleurobranchoidea, Nudibranchia). The Pulmonata include basommatophoran paraphyletic taxa and the clade Geophila (Onchidiidae, Soleolifera, Stylommatophora). The position of the Sacoglossa and the monophyly of the Notaspidea are also discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Animal Science and Zoology