Evolving guidelines for intravitreous injections

Lloyd P. Aiello, Alexander J. Brucker, Stanley Chang, Emmett T. Cunningham, Donald J. D'Amico, Harry W. Flynn, Lisa R. Grillone, Steve Hutcherson, Jeffrey M. Liebmann, Terrence P. O'Brien, Ingrid U. Scott, Richard F. Spaide, Christopher Ta, Michael T. Trese

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

320 Citations (SciVal)


Intravitreous (IVT) injection is increasingly being incorporated into the management of ocular diseases. While only fomivirsen sodium (Vitravene™) is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an IVT injection, the number of approved IVT injections indications is anticipated to grow on the basis of promising results from ongoing clinical studies. Despite the potential benefits that may be derived from intraocular injections of different agents, no guidelines have been published previously for IVT injection. The purpose of this document is to identify specific strategies for the delivery of IVT injection that may reduce risks and improve outcomes. Consensus was sought among a panel of investigators, surgeons experienced with this technique, and industry representatives. Objective evidence was sought for all guidelines, but consensus was accepted where evidence remains incomplete. In the absence of either evidence or consensus, the current manuscript identifies outstanding issues in need of further investigation. It is anticipated that more complete guidelines will evolve over time, potentially altering some of the guidelines included here, based on new applications of IVT injection, additional clinical experience, and results of clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S3-S19
Issue number5 SUPPL.
StatePublished - Oct 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology


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