Examination of the metallic bonding of a clad material and two gold plating systems under constant force fretting conditions

Neil Aukland, Harry Hardee, Anna Wehr, Scan Brennan, Philip Lees

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Metallic bonding (cold welding) comparisons were made between a clad and two different gold plated contact materials under constant force fretting conditions. Previous experiments conducted at the Advanced Interconnections Laboratory showed that various material systems had different tendencies for metallic bonding. Three different material systems were selected to study this phenomenon. They were a thick gold plating, a gold flash over 80% palladium 20% nickel and a clad material (WE#1 over R156). Four different normal forces: 20, 50, 100, and 200 grams were used in this research project. Contact resistance data were collected using a four-wire measurement system with the open circuit voltage limited to 0.02 volts. Relative humidity was controlled to be 40%. The procedure for each experiment was as follows: tangential force was increased until the static coefficient of friction was exceeded, then a constant displacement was maintained until a wear track was established, then a constant force was maintained throughout the remainder of the experiment. Two sets of data were collected during each experiment: fret amplitude and contact resistance. The three material systems were statistically compared using analysis of variance techniques. They were compared on the number of fretting cycles needed to stop fretting motion, after a wear track was established.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-19
Number of pages13
JournalElectrical Contacts, Proceedings of the Annual Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts
StatePublished - Dec 1 1997
EventProceedings of the 1997 43rd IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts - Philadelphia, PA, USA
Duration: Oct 18 1997Oct 21 1997

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Gold plating
Contact resistance
Gold
Experiments
Cold welding
Wear of materials
Palladium
Open circuit voltage
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Nickel
Atmospheric humidity
Wire
Friction

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Examination of the metallic bonding of a clad material and two gold plating systems under constant force fretting conditions",
abstract = "Metallic bonding (cold welding) comparisons were made between a clad and two different gold plated contact materials under constant force fretting conditions. Previous experiments conducted at the Advanced Interconnections Laboratory showed that various material systems had different tendencies for metallic bonding. Three different material systems were selected to study this phenomenon. They were a thick gold plating, a gold flash over 80{\%} palladium 20{\%} nickel and a clad material (WE#1 over R156). Four different normal forces: 20, 50, 100, and 200 grams were used in this research project. Contact resistance data were collected using a four-wire measurement system with the open circuit voltage limited to 0.02 volts. Relative humidity was controlled to be 40{\%}. The procedure for each experiment was as follows: tangential force was increased until the static coefficient of friction was exceeded, then a constant displacement was maintained until a wear track was established, then a constant force was maintained throughout the remainder of the experiment. Two sets of data were collected during each experiment: fret amplitude and contact resistance. The three material systems were statistically compared using analysis of variance techniques. They were compared on the number of fretting cycles needed to stop fretting motion, after a wear track was established.",
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T1 - Examination of the metallic bonding of a clad material and two gold plating systems under constant force fretting conditions

AU - Aukland, Neil

AU - Hardee, Harry

AU - Wehr, Anna

AU - Brennan, Scan

AU - Lees, Philip

PY - 1997/12/1

Y1 - 1997/12/1

N2 - Metallic bonding (cold welding) comparisons were made between a clad and two different gold plated contact materials under constant force fretting conditions. Previous experiments conducted at the Advanced Interconnections Laboratory showed that various material systems had different tendencies for metallic bonding. Three different material systems were selected to study this phenomenon. They were a thick gold plating, a gold flash over 80% palladium 20% nickel and a clad material (WE#1 over R156). Four different normal forces: 20, 50, 100, and 200 grams were used in this research project. Contact resistance data were collected using a four-wire measurement system with the open circuit voltage limited to 0.02 volts. Relative humidity was controlled to be 40%. The procedure for each experiment was as follows: tangential force was increased until the static coefficient of friction was exceeded, then a constant displacement was maintained until a wear track was established, then a constant force was maintained throughout the remainder of the experiment. Two sets of data were collected during each experiment: fret amplitude and contact resistance. The three material systems were statistically compared using analysis of variance techniques. They were compared on the number of fretting cycles needed to stop fretting motion, after a wear track was established.

AB - Metallic bonding (cold welding) comparisons were made between a clad and two different gold plated contact materials under constant force fretting conditions. Previous experiments conducted at the Advanced Interconnections Laboratory showed that various material systems had different tendencies for metallic bonding. Three different material systems were selected to study this phenomenon. They were a thick gold plating, a gold flash over 80% palladium 20% nickel and a clad material (WE#1 over R156). Four different normal forces: 20, 50, 100, and 200 grams were used in this research project. Contact resistance data were collected using a four-wire measurement system with the open circuit voltage limited to 0.02 volts. Relative humidity was controlled to be 40%. The procedure for each experiment was as follows: tangential force was increased until the static coefficient of friction was exceeded, then a constant displacement was maintained until a wear track was established, then a constant force was maintained throughout the remainder of the experiment. Two sets of data were collected during each experiment: fret amplitude and contact resistance. The three material systems were statistically compared using analysis of variance techniques. They were compared on the number of fretting cycles needed to stop fretting motion, after a wear track was established.

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