Objective: To investigate the alignment between vegetables and fruits listed in the ingredients of commercially produced infant and toddler food (ITF) and inclusion in front-of-package product names. Design: A database of commercial ITF containing vegetables (n = 548) was created. Inclusion of each vegetable or fruit in the product name (yes/no), form (ie, whole/puree, juice/juice concentrate, etc), and ingredient list position (ie, first, second) were recorded. Vegetables were classified per US Department of Agriculture categories; fruits were classified into 2 categories. Analysis: Chi-square tests of association tested associations between product name inclusion and (1) vegetable and fruit category, (2) form, and (3) form by category. Results: Associations were observed between vegetable and fruit categories and inclusion in product names [χ2 (6, N = 1,462) = 70.3, P < 0.001]. Vegetables in the US Department of Agriculture dark green category were more likely to appear in product names (94%; standardized residual [SR] = 2.1), as were other vegetables (62%; SR = 4.9). Vegetable and fruit forms were associated with inclusion in product name [χ2 (4, N = 1,462) = 206.6, P < 0.001]. Juice/juice concentrates were less likely to be included in names (32.4%; SR = −5.4). Conclusions and Implications: Substantial discrepancies exist between ITF ingredient lists and front-of-package product names. When only front-of-package information informs purchases, caregivers may not be purchasing products that facilitate children's building of vegetable preferences.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics