Experimental analysis and thermodynamic calculations of an additively manufactured functionally graded material of v to Invar 36

Lourdes D. Bobbio, Brandon Bocklund, Richard Otis, John Paul Borgonia, Robert Peter Dillon, Andrew A. Shapiro, Bryan McEnerney, Zi-kui Liu, Allison Michelle Beese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) in which the elemental composition intentionally varies with position can be fabricated using directed energy deposition additive manufacturing (AM). This work examines an FGM that is linearly graded from V to Invar 36 (64 wt% Fe, 36 wt% Ni). This FGM cracked during fabrication, indicating the formation of detrimental phases. The microstructure, composition, phases, and microhardness of the gradient zone were analyzed experimentally. The phase composition as a function of chemistry was predicted through thermodynamic calculations. It was determined that a significant amount of the intermetallic σ-FeV phase formed within the gradient zone. When the σ phase constituted the majority phase, catastrophic cracking occurred. The approach presented illustrates the suitability of using equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for the prediction of phase formation in FGMs made by AM despite the nonequilibrium conditions in AM, providing a route for the computationally informed design of FGMs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1642-1649
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Materials Research
Volume33
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 13 2018

Fingerprint

Functionally graded materials
3D printers
manufacturing
Thermodynamics
thermodynamics
gradients
nonequilibrium conditions
Phase composition
thermodynamic equilibrium
microhardness
intermetallics
routes
chemistry
microstructure
fabrication
Microhardness
Intermetallics
predictions
Fabrication
Microstructure

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Bobbio, Lourdes D. ; Bocklund, Brandon ; Otis, Richard ; Borgonia, John Paul ; Dillon, Robert Peter ; Shapiro, Andrew A. ; McEnerney, Bryan ; Liu, Zi-kui ; Beese, Allison Michelle. / Experimental analysis and thermodynamic calculations of an additively manufactured functionally graded material of v to Invar 36. In: Journal of Materials Research. 2018 ; Vol. 33, No. 11. pp. 1642-1649.
@article{8dc2fe6cf4224eb18e5a1f6de9f84998,
title = "Experimental analysis and thermodynamic calculations of an additively manufactured functionally graded material of v to Invar 36",
abstract = "Functionally graded materials (FGMs) in which the elemental composition intentionally varies with position can be fabricated using directed energy deposition additive manufacturing (AM). This work examines an FGM that is linearly graded from V to Invar 36 (64 wt{\%} Fe, 36 wt{\%} Ni). This FGM cracked during fabrication, indicating the formation of detrimental phases. The microstructure, composition, phases, and microhardness of the gradient zone were analyzed experimentally. The phase composition as a function of chemistry was predicted through thermodynamic calculations. It was determined that a significant amount of the intermetallic σ-FeV phase formed within the gradient zone. When the σ phase constituted the majority phase, catastrophic cracking occurred. The approach presented illustrates the suitability of using equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for the prediction of phase formation in FGMs made by AM despite the nonequilibrium conditions in AM, providing a route for the computationally informed design of FGMs.",
author = "Bobbio, {Lourdes D.} and Brandon Bocklund and Richard Otis and Borgonia, {John Paul} and Dillon, {Robert Peter} and Shapiro, {Andrew A.} and Bryan McEnerney and Zi-kui Liu and Beese, {Allison Michelle}",
year = "2018",
month = "6",
day = "13",
doi = "10.1557/jmr.2018.92",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "33",
pages = "1642--1649",
journal = "Journal of Materials Research",
issn = "0884-2914",
publisher = "Materials Research Society",
number = "11",

}

Experimental analysis and thermodynamic calculations of an additively manufactured functionally graded material of v to Invar 36. / Bobbio, Lourdes D.; Bocklund, Brandon; Otis, Richard; Borgonia, John Paul; Dillon, Robert Peter; Shapiro, Andrew A.; McEnerney, Bryan; Liu, Zi-kui; Beese, Allison Michelle.

In: Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 33, No. 11, 13.06.2018, p. 1642-1649.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Experimental analysis and thermodynamic calculations of an additively manufactured functionally graded material of v to Invar 36

AU - Bobbio, Lourdes D.

AU - Bocklund, Brandon

AU - Otis, Richard

AU - Borgonia, John Paul

AU - Dillon, Robert Peter

AU - Shapiro, Andrew A.

AU - McEnerney, Bryan

AU - Liu, Zi-kui

AU - Beese, Allison Michelle

PY - 2018/6/13

Y1 - 2018/6/13

N2 - Functionally graded materials (FGMs) in which the elemental composition intentionally varies with position can be fabricated using directed energy deposition additive manufacturing (AM). This work examines an FGM that is linearly graded from V to Invar 36 (64 wt% Fe, 36 wt% Ni). This FGM cracked during fabrication, indicating the formation of detrimental phases. The microstructure, composition, phases, and microhardness of the gradient zone were analyzed experimentally. The phase composition as a function of chemistry was predicted through thermodynamic calculations. It was determined that a significant amount of the intermetallic σ-FeV phase formed within the gradient zone. When the σ phase constituted the majority phase, catastrophic cracking occurred. The approach presented illustrates the suitability of using equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for the prediction of phase formation in FGMs made by AM despite the nonequilibrium conditions in AM, providing a route for the computationally informed design of FGMs.

AB - Functionally graded materials (FGMs) in which the elemental composition intentionally varies with position can be fabricated using directed energy deposition additive manufacturing (AM). This work examines an FGM that is linearly graded from V to Invar 36 (64 wt% Fe, 36 wt% Ni). This FGM cracked during fabrication, indicating the formation of detrimental phases. The microstructure, composition, phases, and microhardness of the gradient zone were analyzed experimentally. The phase composition as a function of chemistry was predicted through thermodynamic calculations. It was determined that a significant amount of the intermetallic σ-FeV phase formed within the gradient zone. When the σ phase constituted the majority phase, catastrophic cracking occurred. The approach presented illustrates the suitability of using equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for the prediction of phase formation in FGMs made by AM despite the nonequilibrium conditions in AM, providing a route for the computationally informed design of FGMs.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85047157596&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85047157596&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1557/jmr.2018.92

DO - 10.1557/jmr.2018.92

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85047157596

VL - 33

SP - 1642

EP - 1649

JO - Journal of Materials Research

JF - Journal of Materials Research

SN - 0884-2914

IS - 11

ER -