An international committee of Johne's disease (JD) researchers was convened to develop guidelines for JD challenge studies in multiple animal species. The intent was to develop and propose international standard guidelines for models based on animal species that would gain acceptance worldwide. Parameters essential for the development of long-term and short-term infection models were outlined and harmonized to provide a "best fit" JD challenge model for cattle, goats, sheep, cervids, and mice. These models will be useful to study host-pathogen interactions, host immunity at the local and systemic level, and for evaluating vaccine candidates and therapeutics. The consensus guidelines herein list by animal species strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis used, challenge dose, dose frequency, age of challenge, route of challenge, preparation of inoculum, experimental animal selection, quality control, minimal experimental endpoints and other parameters.
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