Non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (NTS) are the leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide and the leading cause of hospitalization and death due to foodborne illnesses in the United States. While there has been some progress in vaccine development against Salmonella spp., there are no broadly protective vaccines. A compounding factor in the development of these vaccines is the lack of a natural model. Most vaccine research is performed utilizing a mouse typhoid model. Unlike mice, calves infected with Salmonella develop gastroenteritis similar to the disease in humans. The initial step in developing a model of infection in older calves is the determination of a bacterial dose that elicits substantial clinical disease without causing death. Ten-week-old calves were orally inoculated with increasing doses of either Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or Newport. Clinical illness scores were assigned based on rectal temperature, fecal consistency, attitude and hydration. Gross and microscopic pathology findings were also evaluated. These older calves exhibited clinical and pathologic signs of severe gastroenteritis without death losses with effective dose of 1. ×. 108. CFUs for S. Typhimurium and 1. ×. 107. CFUs for S. Newport.
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