Experimental validation of compliant joints in a dynamic spar numerical model

Joseph Calogero, Mary Frecker, Zohaib Hasnain, James E. Hubbard

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

A dynamic spar numerical model for passive shape change is validated for a single degree of freedom contact-aided compliant mechanism (CCM) in a flapping spar. CCMs are modeled as compliant joints: spherical joints with distributed mass and three axis nonlinear torsional spring-dampers. Several assumptions were made in the original formulation of the model, such as assuming the spars were rigid and a simple damping model for the compliant joints. An experiment was performed to validate the assumptions and tune the model. Four configurations of the leading edge spar were tested: a solid spar, a previously designed CCM at two spatial locations, and a modified version of the CCM. Reflective markers were placed on each configuration, then the spars were inserted into the wing roots of a clamped ornithopter. An array of computer vision cameras was used to track the spar and CCM kinematics as they were flapped. First, a flapping angle function was extracted using a moving average of the flapping cycles. Then, a genetic algorithm was implemented to tune the stiffness and damping parameters for each of the configuration, minimizing the root mean square error between the model and experimental marker kinematics. The model was able to capture the deflection amplitude and harmonics of the CCMs with very good agreement and minimal to no phase shift.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationModeling, Simulation and Control; Bio-Inspired Smart Materials and Systems; Energy Harvesting
PublisherAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers
ISBN (Electronic)9780791850497
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016
EventASME 2016 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, SMASIS 2016 - Stowe, United States
Duration: Sep 28 2016Sep 30 2016

Publication series

NameASME 2016 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, SMASIS 2016
Volume2

Other

OtherASME 2016 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, SMASIS 2016
CountryUnited States
CityStowe
Period9/28/169/30/16

Fingerprint

Compliant mechanisms
Numerical models
Kinematics
Damping
Phase shift
Mean square error
Computer vision
Genetic algorithms
Cameras
Stiffness
Experiments

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Building and Construction
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials

Cite this

Calogero, J., Frecker, M., Hasnain, Z., & Hubbard, J. E. (2016). Experimental validation of compliant joints in a dynamic spar numerical model. In Modeling, Simulation and Control; Bio-Inspired Smart Materials and Systems; Energy Harvesting [V002T06A006] (ASME 2016 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, SMASIS 2016; Vol. 2). American Society of Mechanical Engineers. https://doi.org/10.1115/SMASIS2016-9074
Calogero, Joseph ; Frecker, Mary ; Hasnain, Zohaib ; Hubbard, James E. / Experimental validation of compliant joints in a dynamic spar numerical model. Modeling, Simulation and Control; Bio-Inspired Smart Materials and Systems; Energy Harvesting. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2016. (ASME 2016 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, SMASIS 2016).
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abstract = "A dynamic spar numerical model for passive shape change is validated for a single degree of freedom contact-aided compliant mechanism (CCM) in a flapping spar. CCMs are modeled as compliant joints: spherical joints with distributed mass and three axis nonlinear torsional spring-dampers. Several assumptions were made in the original formulation of the model, such as assuming the spars were rigid and a simple damping model for the compliant joints. An experiment was performed to validate the assumptions and tune the model. Four configurations of the leading edge spar were tested: a solid spar, a previously designed CCM at two spatial locations, and a modified version of the CCM. Reflective markers were placed on each configuration, then the spars were inserted into the wing roots of a clamped ornithopter. An array of computer vision cameras was used to track the spar and CCM kinematics as they were flapped. First, a flapping angle function was extracted using a moving average of the flapping cycles. Then, a genetic algorithm was implemented to tune the stiffness and damping parameters for each of the configuration, minimizing the root mean square error between the model and experimental marker kinematics. The model was able to capture the deflection amplitude and harmonics of the CCMs with very good agreement and minimal to no phase shift.",
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Calogero, J, Frecker, M, Hasnain, Z & Hubbard, JE 2016, Experimental validation of compliant joints in a dynamic spar numerical model. in Modeling, Simulation and Control; Bio-Inspired Smart Materials and Systems; Energy Harvesting., V002T06A006, ASME 2016 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, SMASIS 2016, vol. 2, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME 2016 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, SMASIS 2016, Stowe, United States, 9/28/16. https://doi.org/10.1115/SMASIS2016-9074

Experimental validation of compliant joints in a dynamic spar numerical model. / Calogero, Joseph; Frecker, Mary; Hasnain, Zohaib; Hubbard, James E.

Modeling, Simulation and Control; Bio-Inspired Smart Materials and Systems; Energy Harvesting. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2016. V002T06A006 (ASME 2016 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, SMASIS 2016; Vol. 2).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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AB - A dynamic spar numerical model for passive shape change is validated for a single degree of freedom contact-aided compliant mechanism (CCM) in a flapping spar. CCMs are modeled as compliant joints: spherical joints with distributed mass and three axis nonlinear torsional spring-dampers. Several assumptions were made in the original formulation of the model, such as assuming the spars were rigid and a simple damping model for the compliant joints. An experiment was performed to validate the assumptions and tune the model. Four configurations of the leading edge spar were tested: a solid spar, a previously designed CCM at two spatial locations, and a modified version of the CCM. Reflective markers were placed on each configuration, then the spars were inserted into the wing roots of a clamped ornithopter. An array of computer vision cameras was used to track the spar and CCM kinematics as they were flapped. First, a flapping angle function was extracted using a moving average of the flapping cycles. Then, a genetic algorithm was implemented to tune the stiffness and damping parameters for each of the configuration, minimizing the root mean square error between the model and experimental marker kinematics. The model was able to capture the deflection amplitude and harmonics of the CCMs with very good agreement and minimal to no phase shift.

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BT - Modeling, Simulation and Control; Bio-Inspired Smart Materials and Systems; Energy Harvesting

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Calogero J, Frecker M, Hasnain Z, Hubbard JE. Experimental validation of compliant joints in a dynamic spar numerical model. In Modeling, Simulation and Control; Bio-Inspired Smart Materials and Systems; Energy Harvesting. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 2016. V002T06A006. (ASME 2016 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, SMASIS 2016). https://doi.org/10.1115/SMASIS2016-9074