Extended gamma-ray sources around pulsars constrain the origin of the positron flux at Earth

A. U. Abeysekara, A. Albert, R. Alfaro, C. Alvarez, J. D. Álvarez, R. Arceo, J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez, D. Avila Rojas, H. A. Ayala Solares, A. S. Barber, N. Bautista-Elivar, A. Becerril, E. Belmont-Moreno, S. Y. BenZvi, D. Berley, A. Bernal, J. Braun, C. Brisbois, K. S. Caballero-Mora, T. Capistrán & 96 others A. Carramiñana, S. Casanova, M. Castillo, U. Cotti, J. Cotzomi, S. Coutiño De León, C. De León, E. De La Fuente, B. L. Dingus, M. A. DuVernois, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, R. W. Ellsworth, K. Engel, O. Enríquez-Rivera, D. W. Fiorino, N. Fraija, J. A. García-González, F. Garfias, M. Gerhardt, A. González Muñoz, M. M. González, J. A. Goodman, Z. Hampel-Arias, J. P. Harding, S. Hernández, A. Hernández-Almada, J. Hinton, B. Hona, C. M. Hui, P. Hüntemeyer, A. Iriarte, A. Jardin-Blicq, V. Joshi, S. Kaufmann, D. Kieda, A. Lara, R. J. Lauer, W. H. Lee, D. Lennarz, H. León Vargas, J. T. Linnemann, A. L. Longinotti, G. Luis Raya, R. Luna-García, R. López-Coto, K. Malone, S. S. Marinelli, O. Martinez, I. Martinez-Castellanos, J. Martínez-Castro, H. Martínez-Huerta, J. A. Matthews, P. Miranda-Romagnoli, E. Moreno, Miguel Alejandro Mostafa, L. Nellen, M. Newbold, M. U. Nisa, R. Noriega-Papaqui, R. Pelayo, John Robert Pretz, E. G. Pérez-Pérez, Z. Ren, C. D. Rho, C. Rivière, D. Rosa-González, M. Rosenberg, E. Ruiz-Velasco, H. Salazar, F. Salesa Greus, A. Sandoval, M. Schneider, H. Schoorlemmer, G. Sinnis, A. J. Smith, R. W. Springer, P. Surajbali, I. Taboada, O. Tibolla, K. Tollefson, I. Torres, T. N. Ukwatta, G. Vianello, T. Weisgarber, S. Westerhoff, I. G. Wisher, J. Wood, T. Yapici, G. Yodh, P. W. Younk, A. Zepeda, H. Zhou, F. Guo, J. Hahn, H. Li, H. Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The unexpectedly high flux of cosmic-ray positrons detected at Earth may originate from nearby astrophysical sources, dark matter, or unknown processes of cosmic-ray secondary production. We report the detection, using the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC), of extended tera–electron volt gamma-ray emission coincident with the locations of two nearby middle-aged pulsars (Geminga and PSR B0656+14). The HAWC observations demonstrate that these pulsars are indeed local sources of accelerated leptons, but the measured tera–electron volt emission profile constrains the diffusion of particles away from these sources to be much slower than previously assumed. We demonstrate that the leptons emitted by these objects are therefore unlikely to be the origin of the excess positrons, which may have a more exotic origin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)911-914
Number of pages4
JournalScience
Volume358
Issue number6365
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 17 2017

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Gamma Rays
Electrons
Water

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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Abeysekara, A. U., Albert, A., Alfaro, R., Alvarez, C., Álvarez, J. D., Arceo, R., ... Zhang, H. (2017). Extended gamma-ray sources around pulsars constrain the origin of the positron flux at Earth. Science, 358(6365), 911-914. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan4880
Abeysekara, A. U. ; Albert, A. ; Alfaro, R. ; Alvarez, C. ; Álvarez, J. D. ; Arceo, R. ; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C. ; Avila Rojas, D. ; Ayala Solares, H. A. ; Barber, A. S. ; Bautista-Elivar, N. ; Becerril, A. ; Belmont-Moreno, E. ; BenZvi, S. Y. ; Berley, D. ; Bernal, A. ; Braun, J. ; Brisbois, C. ; Caballero-Mora, K. S. ; Capistrán, T. ; Carramiñana, A. ; Casanova, S. ; Castillo, M. ; Cotti, U. ; Cotzomi, J. ; Coutiño De León, S. ; De León, C. ; De La Fuente, E. ; Dingus, B. L. ; DuVernois, M. A. ; Díaz-Vélez, J. C. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Engel, K. ; Enríquez-Rivera, O. ; Fiorino, D. W. ; Fraija, N. ; García-González, J. A. ; Garfias, F. ; Gerhardt, M. ; González Muñoz, A. ; González, M. M. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Hampel-Arias, Z. ; Harding, J. P. ; Hernández, S. ; Hernández-Almada, A. ; Hinton, J. ; Hona, B. ; Hui, C. M. ; Hüntemeyer, P. ; Iriarte, A. ; Jardin-Blicq, A. ; Joshi, V. ; Kaufmann, S. ; Kieda, D. ; Lara, A. ; Lauer, R. J. ; Lee, W. H. ; Lennarz, D. ; León Vargas, H. ; Linnemann, J. T. ; Longinotti, A. L. ; Luis Raya, G. ; Luna-García, R. ; López-Coto, R. ; Malone, K. ; Marinelli, S. S. ; Martinez, O. ; Martinez-Castellanos, I. ; Martínez-Castro, J. ; Martínez-Huerta, H. ; Matthews, J. A. ; Miranda-Romagnoli, P. ; Moreno, E. ; Mostafa, Miguel Alejandro ; Nellen, L. ; Newbold, M. ; Nisa, M. U. ; Noriega-Papaqui, R. ; Pelayo, R. ; Pretz, John Robert ; Pérez-Pérez, E. G. ; Ren, Z. ; Rho, C. D. ; Rivière, C. ; Rosa-González, D. ; Rosenberg, M. ; Ruiz-Velasco, E. ; Salazar, H. ; Salesa Greus, F. ; Sandoval, A. ; Schneider, M. ; Schoorlemmer, H. ; Sinnis, G. ; Smith, A. J. ; Springer, R. W. ; Surajbali, P. ; Taboada, I. ; Tibolla, O. ; Tollefson, K. ; Torres, I. ; Ukwatta, T. N. ; Vianello, G. ; Weisgarber, T. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Wisher, I. G. ; Wood, J. ; Yapici, T. ; Yodh, G. ; Younk, P. W. ; Zepeda, A. ; Zhou, H. ; Guo, F. ; Hahn, J. ; Li, H. ; Zhang, H. / Extended gamma-ray sources around pulsars constrain the origin of the positron flux at Earth. In: Science. 2017 ; Vol. 358, No. 6365. pp. 911-914.
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abstract = "The unexpectedly high flux of cosmic-ray positrons detected at Earth may originate from nearby astrophysical sources, dark matter, or unknown processes of cosmic-ray secondary production. We report the detection, using the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC), of extended tera–electron volt gamma-ray emission coincident with the locations of two nearby middle-aged pulsars (Geminga and PSR B0656+14). The HAWC observations demonstrate that these pulsars are indeed local sources of accelerated leptons, but the measured tera–electron volt emission profile constrains the diffusion of particles away from these sources to be much slower than previously assumed. We demonstrate that the leptons emitted by these objects are therefore unlikely to be the origin of the excess positrons, which may have a more exotic origin.",
author = "Abeysekara, {A. U.} and A. Albert and R. Alfaro and C. Alvarez and {\'A}lvarez, {J. D.} and R. Arceo and Arteaga-Vel{\'a}zquez, {J. C.} and {Avila Rojas}, D. and {Ayala Solares}, {H. A.} and Barber, {A. S.} and N. Bautista-Elivar and A. Becerril and E. Belmont-Moreno and BenZvi, {S. Y.} and D. Berley and A. Bernal and J. Braun and C. Brisbois and Caballero-Mora, {K. S.} and T. Capistr{\'a}n and A. Carrami{\~n}ana and S. Casanova and M. Castillo and U. Cotti and J. Cotzomi and {Couti{\~n}o De Le{\'o}n}, S. and {De Le{\'o}n}, C. and {De La Fuente}, E. and Dingus, {B. L.} and DuVernois, {M. A.} and D{\'i}az-V{\'e}lez, {J. C.} and Ellsworth, {R. W.} and K. Engel and O. Enr{\'i}quez-Rivera and Fiorino, {D. W.} and N. Fraija and Garc{\'i}a-Gonz{\'a}lez, {J. A.} and F. Garfias and M. Gerhardt and {Gonz{\'a}lez Mu{\~n}oz}, A. and Gonz{\'a}lez, {M. M.} and Goodman, {J. A.} and Z. Hampel-Arias and Harding, {J. P.} and S. Hern{\'a}ndez and A. Hern{\'a}ndez-Almada and J. Hinton and B. Hona and Hui, {C. M.} and P. H{\"u}ntemeyer and A. Iriarte and A. Jardin-Blicq and V. Joshi and S. Kaufmann and D. Kieda and A. Lara and Lauer, {R. J.} and Lee, {W. H.} and D. Lennarz and {Le{\'o}n Vargas}, H. and Linnemann, {J. T.} and Longinotti, {A. L.} and {Luis Raya}, G. and R. Luna-Garc{\'i}a and R. L{\'o}pez-Coto and K. Malone and Marinelli, {S. S.} and O. Martinez and I. Martinez-Castellanos and J. Mart{\'i}nez-Castro and H. Mart{\'i}nez-Huerta and Matthews, {J. A.} and P. Miranda-Romagnoli and E. Moreno and Mostafa, {Miguel Alejandro} and L. Nellen and M. Newbold and Nisa, {M. U.} and R. Noriega-Papaqui and R. Pelayo and Pretz, {John Robert} and P{\'e}rez-P{\'e}rez, {E. G.} and Z. Ren and Rho, {C. D.} and C. Rivi{\`e}re and D. Rosa-Gonz{\'a}lez and M. Rosenberg and E. Ruiz-Velasco and H. Salazar and {Salesa Greus}, F. and A. Sandoval and M. Schneider and H. Schoorlemmer and G. Sinnis and Smith, {A. J.} and Springer, {R. W.} and P. Surajbali and I. Taboada and O. Tibolla and K. Tollefson and I. Torres and Ukwatta, {T. N.} and G. Vianello and T. Weisgarber and S. Westerhoff and Wisher, {I. G.} and J. Wood and T. Yapici and G. Yodh and Younk, {P. W.} and A. Zepeda and H. Zhou and F. Guo and J. Hahn and H. Li and H. Zhang",
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Abeysekara, AU, Albert, A, Alfaro, R, Alvarez, C, Álvarez, JD, Arceo, R, Arteaga-Velázquez, JC, Avila Rojas, D, Ayala Solares, HA, Barber, AS, Bautista-Elivar, N, Becerril, A, Belmont-Moreno, E, BenZvi, SY, Berley, D, Bernal, A, Braun, J, Brisbois, C, Caballero-Mora, KS, Capistrán, T, Carramiñana, A, Casanova, S, Castillo, M, Cotti, U, Cotzomi, J, Coutiño De León, S, De León, C, De La Fuente, E, Dingus, BL, DuVernois, MA, Díaz-Vélez, JC, Ellsworth, RW, Engel, K, Enríquez-Rivera, O, Fiorino, DW, Fraija, N, García-González, JA, Garfias, F, Gerhardt, M, González Muñoz, A, González, MM, Goodman, JA, Hampel-Arias, Z, Harding, JP, Hernández, S, Hernández-Almada, A, Hinton, J, Hona, B, Hui, CM, Hüntemeyer, P, Iriarte, A, Jardin-Blicq, A, Joshi, V, Kaufmann, S, Kieda, D, Lara, A, Lauer, RJ, Lee, WH, Lennarz, D, León Vargas, H, Linnemann, JT, Longinotti, AL, Luis Raya, G, Luna-García, R, López-Coto, R, Malone, K, Marinelli, SS, Martinez, O, Martinez-Castellanos, I, Martínez-Castro, J, Martínez-Huerta, H, Matthews, JA, Miranda-Romagnoli, P, Moreno, E, Mostafa, MA, Nellen, L, Newbold, M, Nisa, MU, Noriega-Papaqui, R, Pelayo, R, Pretz, JR, Pérez-Pérez, EG, Ren, Z, Rho, CD, Rivière, C, Rosa-González, D, Rosenberg, M, Ruiz-Velasco, E, Salazar, H, Salesa Greus, F, Sandoval, A, Schneider, M, Schoorlemmer, H, Sinnis, G, Smith, AJ, Springer, RW, Surajbali, P, Taboada, I, Tibolla, O, Tollefson, K, Torres, I, Ukwatta, TN, Vianello, G, Weisgarber, T, Westerhoff, S, Wisher, IG, Wood, J, Yapici, T, Yodh, G, Younk, PW, Zepeda, A, Zhou, H, Guo, F, Hahn, J, Li, H & Zhang, H 2017, 'Extended gamma-ray sources around pulsars constrain the origin of the positron flux at Earth', Science, vol. 358, no. 6365, pp. 911-914. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan4880

Extended gamma-ray sources around pulsars constrain the origin of the positron flux at Earth. / Abeysekara, A. U.; Albert, A.; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Avila Rojas, D.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.; Bernal, A.; Braun, J.; Brisbois, C.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Capistrán, T.; Carramiñana, A.; Casanova, S.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; Coutiño De León, S.; De León, C.; De La Fuente, E.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engel, K.; Enríquez-Rivera, O.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fraija, N.; García-González, J. A.; Garfias, F.; Gerhardt, M.; González Muñoz, A.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hernández, S.; Hernández-Almada, A.; Hinton, J.; Hona, B.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Iriarte, A.; Jardin-Blicq, A.; Joshi, V.; Kaufmann, S.; Kieda, D.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longinotti, A. L.; Luis Raya, G.; Luna-García, R.; López-Coto, R.; Malone, K.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, O.; Martinez-Castellanos, I.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Martínez-Huerta, H.; Matthews, J. A.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafa, Miguel Alejandro; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Nisa, M. U.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Pelayo, R.; Pretz, John Robert; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Ren, Z.; Rho, C. D.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Sandoval, A.; Schneider, M.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Springer, R. W.; Surajbali, P.; Taboada, I.; Tibolla, O.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Vianello, G.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wisher, I. G.; Wood, J.; Yapici, T.; Yodh, G.; Younk, P. W.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.; Guo, F.; Hahn, J.; Li, H.; Zhang, H.

In: Science, Vol. 358, No. 6365, 17.11.2017, p. 911-914.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Extended gamma-ray sources around pulsars constrain the origin of the positron flux at Earth

AU - Abeysekara, A. U.

AU - Albert, A.

AU - Alfaro, R.

AU - Alvarez, C.

AU - Álvarez, J. D.

AU - Arceo, R.

AU - Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.

AU - Avila Rojas, D.

AU - Ayala Solares, H. A.

AU - Barber, A. S.

AU - Bautista-Elivar, N.

AU - Becerril, A.

AU - Belmont-Moreno, E.

AU - BenZvi, S. Y.

AU - Berley, D.

AU - Bernal, A.

AU - Braun, J.

AU - Brisbois, C.

AU - Caballero-Mora, K. S.

AU - Capistrán, T.

AU - Carramiñana, A.

AU - Casanova, S.

AU - Castillo, M.

AU - Cotti, U.

AU - Cotzomi, J.

AU - Coutiño De León, S.

AU - De León, C.

AU - De La Fuente, E.

AU - Dingus, B. L.

AU - DuVernois, M. A.

AU - Díaz-Vélez, J. C.

AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

AU - Engel, K.

AU - Enríquez-Rivera, O.

AU - Fiorino, D. W.

AU - Fraija, N.

AU - García-González, J. A.

AU - Garfias, F.

AU - Gerhardt, M.

AU - González Muñoz, A.

AU - González, M. M.

AU - Goodman, J. A.

AU - Hampel-Arias, Z.

AU - Harding, J. P.

AU - Hernández, S.

AU - Hernández-Almada, A.

AU - Hinton, J.

AU - Hona, B.

AU - Hui, C. M.

AU - Hüntemeyer, P.

AU - Iriarte, A.

AU - Jardin-Blicq, A.

AU - Joshi, V.

AU - Kaufmann, S.

AU - Kieda, D.

AU - Lara, A.

AU - Lauer, R. J.

AU - Lee, W. H.

AU - Lennarz, D.

AU - León Vargas, H.

AU - Linnemann, J. T.

AU - Longinotti, A. L.

AU - Luis Raya, G.

AU - Luna-García, R.

AU - López-Coto, R.

AU - Malone, K.

AU - Marinelli, S. S.

AU - Martinez, O.

AU - Martinez-Castellanos, I.

AU - Martínez-Castro, J.

AU - Martínez-Huerta, H.

AU - Matthews, J. A.

AU - Miranda-Romagnoli, P.

AU - Moreno, E.

AU - Mostafa, Miguel Alejandro

AU - Nellen, L.

AU - Newbold, M.

AU - Nisa, M. U.

AU - Noriega-Papaqui, R.

AU - Pelayo, R.

AU - Pretz, John Robert

AU - Pérez-Pérez, E. G.

AU - Ren, Z.

AU - Rho, C. D.

AU - Rivière, C.

AU - Rosa-González, D.

AU - Rosenberg, M.

AU - Ruiz-Velasco, E.

AU - Salazar, H.

AU - Salesa Greus, F.

AU - Sandoval, A.

AU - Schneider, M.

AU - Schoorlemmer, H.

AU - Sinnis, G.

AU - Smith, A. J.

AU - Springer, R. W.

AU - Surajbali, P.

AU - Taboada, I.

AU - Tibolla, O.

AU - Tollefson, K.

AU - Torres, I.

AU - Ukwatta, T. N.

AU - Vianello, G.

AU - Weisgarber, T.

AU - Westerhoff, S.

AU - Wisher, I. G.

AU - Wood, J.

AU - Yapici, T.

AU - Yodh, G.

AU - Younk, P. W.

AU - Zepeda, A.

AU - Zhou, H.

AU - Guo, F.

AU - Hahn, J.

AU - Li, H.

AU - Zhang, H.

PY - 2017/11/17

Y1 - 2017/11/17

N2 - The unexpectedly high flux of cosmic-ray positrons detected at Earth may originate from nearby astrophysical sources, dark matter, or unknown processes of cosmic-ray secondary production. We report the detection, using the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC), of extended tera–electron volt gamma-ray emission coincident with the locations of two nearby middle-aged pulsars (Geminga and PSR B0656+14). The HAWC observations demonstrate that these pulsars are indeed local sources of accelerated leptons, but the measured tera–electron volt emission profile constrains the diffusion of particles away from these sources to be much slower than previously assumed. We demonstrate that the leptons emitted by these objects are therefore unlikely to be the origin of the excess positrons, which may have a more exotic origin.

AB - The unexpectedly high flux of cosmic-ray positrons detected at Earth may originate from nearby astrophysical sources, dark matter, or unknown processes of cosmic-ray secondary production. We report the detection, using the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC), of extended tera–electron volt gamma-ray emission coincident with the locations of two nearby middle-aged pulsars (Geminga and PSR B0656+14). The HAWC observations demonstrate that these pulsars are indeed local sources of accelerated leptons, but the measured tera–electron volt emission profile constrains the diffusion of particles away from these sources to be much slower than previously assumed. We demonstrate that the leptons emitted by these objects are therefore unlikely to be the origin of the excess positrons, which may have a more exotic origin.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85034022123&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85034022123&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1126/science.aan4880

DO - 10.1126/science.aan4880

M3 - Article

VL - 358

SP - 911

EP - 914

JO - Science

JF - Science

SN - 0036-8075

IS - 6365

ER -

Abeysekara AU, Albert A, Alfaro R, Alvarez C, Álvarez JD, Arceo R et al. Extended gamma-ray sources around pulsars constrain the origin of the positron flux at Earth. Science. 2017 Nov 17;358(6365):911-914. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan4880