PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and contextualize current concepts in the incidence, diagnosis, management and long-term sequelae of extraesophageal reflux disease in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Extraesophageal reflux disease is a different disease entity from gastroesophageal reflux disease. The two diseases have a common etiology, refluxate causing mucosal damage, but the extent and location of the damage varies considerably depending on the underlying mucosal characteristics. Extraesophageal reflux disease in children is characterized by a broad set of symptoms and signs that vary according to age at presentation and severity of disease. Serious long-term effects begin in childhood. The role of pepsin, bile acids, pancreatic enzymes, motility disorders, and food allergies have only recently been recognized. Newer diagnostic modalities include multichannel intraluminal pH/impedance, the 48 h Bravo implantable probe, and hypopharyngeal pH monitoring. While proton pump inhibitors provide superior acid suppression compared with histamine-2 blockers, variability in response and lack of efficacy for alkaline refluxate often require other therapeutic interventions. SUMMARY: Pediatric extraesophageal reflux disease has variable presentation and a gold standard test is still lacking. Primary treatment includes lifestyle and feeding changes and medical therapy. Ongoing monitoring for recurrence and agreement as to duration of therapy present significant challenges not yet standardized amongst practitioners.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2006|
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