Rhabdoid tumor is a well-accepted clincopathologic entity among childhood renal neoplasms; similar tumors have been described in extrarenal locations. We present the clinicopathologic profile and the immunohistochemical features of a series of soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. Twenty-eight cases coded as extrarenal rhabdoid tumor (ERRT), RT, possible ERRT, and "large cell sarcoma" were retrieved from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology soft tissue registry. The tumors were reclassified according to strict criteria by light microscopy, clinical information, immunohistochemistry, and, in some cases, electron microscopy. Soft tissue rhabdoid tumor (STRT) was defined as (1) a tumor composed of noncohesive single cells, clusters, or sheets of large tumor cells with abundant glassy eosinophilic cytoplasm, an eccentric vesicular nucleus, and an extremely large nucleolus; (2) positivity for vimentin and/or cytokeratin or other epithelial markers by immunostaining; and (3) exclusion of other tumor types with rhabdoid inclusions (melanoma, other sarcomas, carcinoma). Eighteen cases met our criteria for soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. The median patient age was 13 years (range, 6 months to 56 years). Ninety-four percent of STRT cases were positive for vimentin and 59% for pan-cytokeratin. Sixty-three percent and 60% were positive for CAM 5.2 and EMA, respectively. Seventy-nine percent stained for at least one epithelial marker; 76% stained for both vimentin and epithelial markers simultaneously. Forty-two percent stained for MSA, and 14% for CEA and SMA. CD99, synaptophysin, CD57 (Leu-7), NSE, and focal S100 protein were identified in 75%, 66%, 56%, 54%, and 31% of the STRT cases, respectively. All STRT cases examined were negative for HMB-45, chromogranin, BER-EP4, desmin, myoglobin, CD34, and GFAP. Follow-up examination in 61% of the STRT patients revealed that 64% of patients died of disease within a median follow-up interval of 19 months (range, 4 months to 5 years); 82% had metastases to lung, lymph nodes, or liver; 22% had local recurrences before metastasis; and 18% were alive without known disease status (median, 5.5 years). Soft tissue rhabdoid tumor is a highly aggressive sarcoma, predominantly of childhood. Besides having nearly consistent coexpression of vimentin and epithelial markers, STRTs show positivity for multiple neural/neuroectodermal markers that overlap with those of primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine