Fabrication of custom astronomical gratings for the extreme and far ultraviolet bandpasses

Fabien Grise, Nicholas Kruczek, Brian Fleming, Randall McEntaffer, Drew M. Miles, Chad Eichfeld, Michael Labella, Kevin France

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Diffraction gratings used in ultraviolet astronomical spectrographs have been made using mechanical ruling or interference lithography. However, required performance for newly developed EUV (10-90 nm) and FUV (100-180 nm) spectrographs can benefit from groove densities, blaze angles, and low-scatter enabled with electron-beam lithography patterning and chemical etching. We report on the fabrication of custom grating prototypes developed at the Nanofabrication Laboratory at Penn State University. The gratings in development for the ESCAPE NASA Small Explorer (Univ. of Colorado/Boulder) involve writing specific patterns of curved grooves with variable line density on flat substrates. The design of the grating within the DEUCE sounding rocket payload involves writing straight grooves on a spherically curved substrate. All gratings are subsequently etched to achieve the specified blaze in the silicon. These efforts are enabling new applications in the field of astronomical UV spectroscopy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XXII
EditorsOswald H. Siegmund
ISBN (Electronic)9781510644809
StatePublished - 2021
EventUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XXII 2021 - San Diego, United States
Duration: Aug 1 2021Aug 5 2021

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XXII 2021
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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