Superhydrophobicity has recently drawn a great deal of attention from both fundamental and practical application points of view. This paper summarizes the basic principles involved in creation of superhydrophobicity and reviews the diverse methods recently developed to make superhydrophobic surfaces and coatings. The hydrophobic property of materials can be amplified through the surface roughness. This was first addressed theoretically in the 1930s and 1940s. Although there have been significant advances made in superhydrophobicity theories, the basic design principles to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces and coatings remain essentially the same. Recent developments in fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces can be categorized in three different strategies - (1) roughening hydrophobic surfaces, (2) creating rough topographic features on substrates followed by application of hydrophobic surface modification methods and (3) depositing hydrophobic materials with rough surface textures. Various methods found in the literature are grouped and described in these categories. Finally, future challenges and issues involved in utilizing and understanding superhydrophobicity are discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Mechanics of Materials
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry