Fabrication of two-dhviensional and three-deviensional platinum nanoclusters to serve as high technology catalysts - catalyts capable of 100% reaction selectivity

G. A. Somorjai, Robert Martin Rioux, Jr., J. Grunes

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Electron beam lithography and photolithography, followed by size reduction lithography, are carried out to produce two-dimensional nanostructures in the 1-100 nanometer range. The development of size reduction lithography in Berkeley permits parallel formation of 1011 nanowires to provide 1 cm2 surface area nanocluster catalyst that can be used in model studies of catalytic activity and selectivity for comparison with single crystal surfaces. Electron beam lithography, a series preparation technique can only produce 109 nanoparticles or 1 mm2 metal surface area after one day. In most cases, active surface areas of 1 cm2 or more are required for reaction selectivity studies. We shall review the fabrication, cleaning, and characterization of these two-dimensional nanostructure catalysts and their performance in hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions, using ethylene and cyclohexene. The metal-oxide interface may be important for several of the catalytic processes that were studied. Three-dimensional nanoclusters with 1015 nanoparticles are prepared by stabilization of the nanoclusters on an inorganic mesoporous support. The large metal content coupled with the high surface-to-volume ratio of nanoclusters leads to 1 m2 of metal surface area. Monodispersed platinum nanoparticles are prepared by alcohol reduction methods and then encapsulated in mesoporous silica, which is prepared by a hydrothermal reaction in the same aqueous solution. The encapsulated particles are reduced to the metallic state, making them active for catalysis. A second synthetic method produces well dispersed nanoclusters on mesoporous silica using a two-step method and Iow power sonication to facilitate nanocluster diffusion into the silica channels. Twe-dimensional and three dimensional nanoclusters which possess controlled spacing and monodispersed metallic nanoclusters, respectively, provide the opportunity to develop green catalysts that demonstrate 100% reaction selectivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationClusters and Nano-Assemblies
Subtitle of host publicationPhysical and Biological Systems: Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A., 10-13 November, 2003
PublisherWorld Scientific Publishing Co.
Pages97-107
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9789812701879
ISBN (Print)9812563318, 9789812563316
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2005

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Catalyst selectivity
Nanoclusters
Platinum
Fabrication
Catalysts
Electron beam lithography
Silica
Nanoparticles
Metals
Lithography
Nanostructures
Single crystal surfaces
Sonication
Photolithography
Dehydrogenation
Catalysis
Hydrogenation
Nanowires
Cleaning
Catalyst activity

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

Somorjai, G. A., Rioux, Jr., R. M., & Grunes, J. (2005). Fabrication of two-dhviensional and three-deviensional platinum nanoclusters to serve as high technology catalysts - catalyts capable of 100% reaction selectivity. In Clusters and Nano-Assemblies: Physical and Biological Systems: Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A., 10-13 November, 2003 (pp. 97-107). World Scientific Publishing Co.. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812701879_0013
Somorjai, G. A. ; Rioux, Jr., Robert Martin ; Grunes, J. / Fabrication of two-dhviensional and three-deviensional platinum nanoclusters to serve as high technology catalysts - catalyts capable of 100% reaction selectivity. Clusters and Nano-Assemblies: Physical and Biological Systems: Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A., 10-13 November, 2003. World Scientific Publishing Co., 2005. pp. 97-107
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Somorjai, GA, Rioux, Jr., RM & Grunes, J 2005, Fabrication of two-dhviensional and three-deviensional platinum nanoclusters to serve as high technology catalysts - catalyts capable of 100% reaction selectivity. in Clusters and Nano-Assemblies: Physical and Biological Systems: Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A., 10-13 November, 2003. World Scientific Publishing Co., pp. 97-107. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812701879_0013

Fabrication of two-dhviensional and three-deviensional platinum nanoclusters to serve as high technology catalysts - catalyts capable of 100% reaction selectivity. / Somorjai, G. A.; Rioux, Jr., Robert Martin; Grunes, J.

Clusters and Nano-Assemblies: Physical and Biological Systems: Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A., 10-13 November, 2003. World Scientific Publishing Co., 2005. p. 97-107.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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N2 - Electron beam lithography and photolithography, followed by size reduction lithography, are carried out to produce two-dimensional nanostructures in the 1-100 nanometer range. The development of size reduction lithography in Berkeley permits parallel formation of 1011 nanowires to provide 1 cm2 surface area nanocluster catalyst that can be used in model studies of catalytic activity and selectivity for comparison with single crystal surfaces. Electron beam lithography, a series preparation technique can only produce 109 nanoparticles or 1 mm2 metal surface area after one day. In most cases, active surface areas of 1 cm2 or more are required for reaction selectivity studies. We shall review the fabrication, cleaning, and characterization of these two-dimensional nanostructure catalysts and their performance in hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions, using ethylene and cyclohexene. The metal-oxide interface may be important for several of the catalytic processes that were studied. Three-dimensional nanoclusters with 1015 nanoparticles are prepared by stabilization of the nanoclusters on an inorganic mesoporous support. The large metal content coupled with the high surface-to-volume ratio of nanoclusters leads to 1 m2 of metal surface area. Monodispersed platinum nanoparticles are prepared by alcohol reduction methods and then encapsulated in mesoporous silica, which is prepared by a hydrothermal reaction in the same aqueous solution. The encapsulated particles are reduced to the metallic state, making them active for catalysis. A second synthetic method produces well dispersed nanoclusters on mesoporous silica using a two-step method and Iow power sonication to facilitate nanocluster diffusion into the silica channels. Twe-dimensional and three dimensional nanoclusters which possess controlled spacing and monodispersed metallic nanoclusters, respectively, provide the opportunity to develop green catalysts that demonstrate 100% reaction selectivity.

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Somorjai GA, Rioux, Jr. RM, Grunes J. Fabrication of two-dhviensional and three-deviensional platinum nanoclusters to serve as high technology catalysts - catalyts capable of 100% reaction selectivity. In Clusters and Nano-Assemblies: Physical and Biological Systems: Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A., 10-13 November, 2003. World Scientific Publishing Co. 2005. p. 97-107 https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812701879_0013