Facile 1D graphene fiber synthesis from an agricultural by-product: A silicon-mediated graphenization route

Kazunori Fujisawa, Yu Lei, Carla de Tomas, Irene Suarez-Martinez, Chanjing Zhou, Yu Chuan Lin, Shruti Subramanian, Ana Laura Elias Arriaga, Masatsugu Fujishige, Kenji Takeuchi, Joshua Alexander Robinson, Nigel Anthony Marks, Morinobu Endo, Mauricio Terrones Maldonado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A one-dimensional (1D) graphene fiber with a novel structure has been prepared by a heat treatment of rice husk, a natural by-product that contains high amounts of silica. A step-by-step heat treatment of rice husk revealed that (i) carbonization yields porous carbon and silica, (ii) 1D β-SiC nanowires are formed by the carbothermic reduction of silica, (iii) finally 1D graphene fibers are created by silicon sublimation from 1D β-SiC nanowires. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy studies revealed that the graphene fiber is composed of a turbostratic multilayer structure. The SiC-derived material exhibits a large crystalline size and turbostratic stacking making each layer as quasi-free-standing graphene, which is confirmed by the 3.9 times higher Raman G′-band intensity over the G-band intensity. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed a high diffusion rate of Si atoms and a volume reduction of the SiC structure at the sublimation temperature. Since the silicon sublimation occurred from multiple points of the SiC nanowire, this led to radially-collapsed fibers and faceted structures with thick-graphitic-layer that are inter-connected (deflated-balloons and inter-connected balloon-like fibers). This facile synthesis route opens up a new avenue to the cost-effective and etching-free production of self-standing graphene for its bulk usage.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages78-88
Number of pages11
JournalCarbon
Volume142
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019

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Graphite
Silicon
Graphene
Byproducts
Sublimation
Fibers
Silicon Dioxide
Nanowires
Balloons
Silica
Heat treatment
Carbothermal reduction
Carbonization
Biological Products
Electron microscopy
Raman spectroscopy
Molecular dynamics
Etching
Multilayers
Carbon

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Fujisawa, Kazunori ; Lei, Yu ; de Tomas, Carla ; Suarez-Martinez, Irene ; Zhou, Chanjing ; Lin, Yu Chuan ; Subramanian, Shruti ; Elias Arriaga, Ana Laura ; Fujishige, Masatsugu ; Takeuchi, Kenji ; Robinson, Joshua Alexander ; Marks, Nigel Anthony ; Endo, Morinobu ; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio. / Facile 1D graphene fiber synthesis from an agricultural by-product : A silicon-mediated graphenization route. In: Carbon. 2019 ; Vol. 142. pp. 78-88.
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abstract = "A one-dimensional (1D) graphene fiber with a novel structure has been prepared by a heat treatment of rice husk, a natural by-product that contains high amounts of silica. A step-by-step heat treatment of rice husk revealed that (i) carbonization yields porous carbon and silica, (ii) 1D β-SiC nanowires are formed by the carbothermic reduction of silica, (iii) finally 1D graphene fibers are created by silicon sublimation from 1D β-SiC nanowires. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy studies revealed that the graphene fiber is composed of a turbostratic multilayer structure. The SiC-derived material exhibits a large crystalline size and turbostratic stacking making each layer as quasi-free-standing graphene, which is confirmed by the 3.9 times higher Raman G′-band intensity over the G-band intensity. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed a high diffusion rate of Si atoms and a volume reduction of the SiC structure at the sublimation temperature. Since the silicon sublimation occurred from multiple points of the SiC nanowire, this led to radially-collapsed fibers and faceted structures with thick-graphitic-layer that are inter-connected (deflated-balloons and inter-connected balloon-like fibers). This facile synthesis route opens up a new avenue to the cost-effective and etching-free production of self-standing graphene for its bulk usage.",
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Fujisawa, K, Lei, Y, de Tomas, C, Suarez-Martinez, I, Zhou, C, Lin, YC, Subramanian, S, Elias Arriaga, AL, Fujishige, M, Takeuchi, K, Robinson, JA, Marks, NA, Endo, M & Terrones Maldonado, M 2019, 'Facile 1D graphene fiber synthesis from an agricultural by-product: A silicon-mediated graphenization route' Carbon, vol. 142, pp. 78-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.10.032

Facile 1D graphene fiber synthesis from an agricultural by-product : A silicon-mediated graphenization route. / Fujisawa, Kazunori; Lei, Yu; de Tomas, Carla; Suarez-Martinez, Irene; Zhou, Chanjing; Lin, Yu Chuan; Subramanian, Shruti; Elias Arriaga, Ana Laura; Fujishige, Masatsugu; Takeuchi, Kenji; Robinson, Joshua Alexander; Marks, Nigel Anthony; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio.

In: Carbon, Vol. 142, 01.02.2019, p. 78-88.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Facile 1D graphene fiber synthesis from an agricultural by-product

T2 - Carbon

AU - Fujisawa, Kazunori

AU - Lei, Yu

AU - de Tomas, Carla

AU - Suarez-Martinez, Irene

AU - Zhou, Chanjing

AU - Lin, Yu Chuan

AU - Subramanian, Shruti

AU - Elias Arriaga, Ana Laura

AU - Fujishige, Masatsugu

AU - Takeuchi, Kenji

AU - Robinson, Joshua Alexander

AU - Marks, Nigel Anthony

AU - Endo, Morinobu

AU - Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio

PY - 2019/2/1

Y1 - 2019/2/1

N2 - A one-dimensional (1D) graphene fiber with a novel structure has been prepared by a heat treatment of rice husk, a natural by-product that contains high amounts of silica. A step-by-step heat treatment of rice husk revealed that (i) carbonization yields porous carbon and silica, (ii) 1D β-SiC nanowires are formed by the carbothermic reduction of silica, (iii) finally 1D graphene fibers are created by silicon sublimation from 1D β-SiC nanowires. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy studies revealed that the graphene fiber is composed of a turbostratic multilayer structure. The SiC-derived material exhibits a large crystalline size and turbostratic stacking making each layer as quasi-free-standing graphene, which is confirmed by the 3.9 times higher Raman G′-band intensity over the G-band intensity. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed a high diffusion rate of Si atoms and a volume reduction of the SiC structure at the sublimation temperature. Since the silicon sublimation occurred from multiple points of the SiC nanowire, this led to radially-collapsed fibers and faceted structures with thick-graphitic-layer that are inter-connected (deflated-balloons and inter-connected balloon-like fibers). This facile synthesis route opens up a new avenue to the cost-effective and etching-free production of self-standing graphene for its bulk usage.

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