Facile 1D graphene fiber synthesis from an agricultural by-product: A silicon-mediated graphenization route

Kazunori Fujisawa, Yu Lei, Carla de Tomas, Irene Suarez-Martinez, Chanjing Zhou, Yu Chuan Lin, Shruti Subramanian, Ana Laura Elías, Masatsugu Fujishige, Kenji Takeuchi, Joshua A. Robinson, Nigel Anthony Marks, Morinobu Endo, Mauricio Terrones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

A one-dimensional (1D) graphene fiber with a novel structure has been prepared by a heat treatment of rice husk, a natural by-product that contains high amounts of silica. A step-by-step heat treatment of rice husk revealed that (i) carbonization yields porous carbon and silica, (ii) 1D β-SiC nanowires are formed by the carbothermic reduction of silica, (iii) finally 1D graphene fibers are created by silicon sublimation from 1D β-SiC nanowires. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy studies revealed that the graphene fiber is composed of a turbostratic multilayer structure. The SiC-derived material exhibits a large crystalline size and turbostratic stacking making each layer as quasi-free-standing graphene, which is confirmed by the 3.9 times higher Raman G′-band intensity over the G-band intensity. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed a high diffusion rate of Si atoms and a volume reduction of the SiC structure at the sublimation temperature. Since the silicon sublimation occurred from multiple points of the SiC nanowire, this led to radially-collapsed fibers and faceted structures with thick-graphitic-layer that are inter-connected (deflated-balloons and inter-connected balloon-like fibers). This facile synthesis route opens up a new avenue to the cost-effective and etching-free production of self-standing graphene for its bulk usage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)78-88
Number of pages11
JournalCarbon
Volume142
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)

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