This article examines expenditures for a random sample of 1,421 adult Home and Community Based Services (HCBS) and Intermediate Care Facility/Mental Retardation (ICF/MR) recipients in 4 states. The article documents variations in expenditures for individuals with different characteristics and service needs and, controlling for individual characteristics, by residential setting type, Medicaid program (ICF/MR or HCBS), and state. Annual average per-person Medicaid expenditures for HCBS recipients were less than those of ICF/MR residents ($61,770 and $128,275, respectively). HCBS recipients had less severe disability (intellectual, physical, health service needs) than ICF/MR residents. Controlling these differences, and for congregate settings, HCBS were less costly than ICFs/MR, but this distinction accounted for only 3.3% of variation in expenditures. Persons living with families receiving HCBS ($25,072) and in host families (including foster, companion, or shared living arrangements; $44,112) had the lowest Medicaid expenditures.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Community and Home Care
- Psychiatry and Mental health