The potential problem of 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) formation during filter sampling of diesel emissions from dilution tubes is assessed. Rates of formation are calculated using data generated from several independent filter exposure studies. A portion of the 1-NP (12% average) found in participates collected from light-duty (LDD) and heavy-duty diesels (HOD) was found to be due to formation on the filter under average sampling conditions of 10-15/1 dilution at 44°C with 3 ppm NO2 for 23 min. On the average, the concentration of 1-NP in participates emitted from HDD is 16 times less than that found in LDD run under similiar transient conditions. The average emission rate of 1-NP generated from the LDD and HDD was 4.7 μg/km and 1.5 μg/km, respectively for the vehicles operating under Federal Test Procedure (FTP)-transient conditions. Under operating conditions which increase exhaust temperature (increased speed and load), the concentration of nitro-PAH is significantly reduced with a concurrent increase in the concentration of partially oxidized nitro-PAH and dinitro-PAH. The concentration of 1-NP in the particulates measured from HDD in these dilution tube studies (0.33-0.95 ppm, depending upon engine load) is comparable to that measured in highway tunnel experiments (0.54 ppm average).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Science(all)
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)