Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminality: A population-based study in Sweden

Brian M. D'Onofrio, Amber L. Singh, Anastasia Iliadou, Mats Lambe, Christina M. Hultman, Martin Grann, Jenae Marie Neiderhiser, Niklas Långström, Paul Lichtenstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

76 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context: The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and offspring disruptive behaviors has been well documented, but it is unclear whether exposure to SDP or the effects of factors correlated with SDP account for the increased risk. Objective: To test whether the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions was consistent with a causal connection or due to familial background factors by controlling for measured covariates and using a quasi-experimental approach. Design: We used a population-based study of children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 (N=609 372) to examine the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions while controlling for measured traits of both parents.Wealso compared siblings differentially exposed to SDP (n=50 339) to account for unmeasured familial factors that could account for the association. Setting: Population-based study of all children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 with information on maternal SDP and offspring criminal convictions based on national registries collected by the Swedish government. Patients or Other Participants: Children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 (N=609 372) and siblings differentially exposed to SDP (n=50 339). Main Outcome Measures: Violent and nonviolent convictions, based on the Swedish National Crime Register, a register with detailed information on all convictions in the country. Results: Moderate (hazard rate [HR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.34-2.60) and high (HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 3.25-3.63) levels of maternal SDP were associated with an increased risk for offspring violent convictions, even when controlling for maternal and paternal traits. There was no association between SDP and violent convictions, however, when comparing differentially exposed siblings (HRmoderate, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.79-1.30; HRhigh, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.78-1.37). Smoking during pregnancy also was associated with nonviolent convictions in the entire population (HRmoderate, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.58-1.66; HRhigh, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.82-1.92) and when controlling for covariates. But, there was no association when comparing siblings who were differentially exposed (HRmoderate, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.01; HR high, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.02). Conclusion: The results suggest that familial background factors account for the association between maternal SDP and criminal convictions, not the specific exposure to SDP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)529-538
Number of pages10
JournalArchives of General Psychiatry
Volume67
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2010

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Sweden
Smoking
Mothers
Pregnancy
Population
Confidence Intervals
Siblings
Criminality
Offspring
Familial
Conviction
Confidence Interval
Crime
Registries
Parents
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

D'Onofrio, Brian M. ; Singh, Amber L. ; Iliadou, Anastasia ; Lambe, Mats ; Hultman, Christina M. ; Grann, Martin ; Neiderhiser, Jenae Marie ; Långström, Niklas ; Lichtenstein, Paul. / Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminality : A population-based study in Sweden. In: Archives of General Psychiatry. 2010 ; Vol. 67, No. 5. pp. 529-538.
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title = "Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminality: A population-based study in Sweden",
abstract = "Context: The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and offspring disruptive behaviors has been well documented, but it is unclear whether exposure to SDP or the effects of factors correlated with SDP account for the increased risk. Objective: To test whether the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions was consistent with a causal connection or due to familial background factors by controlling for measured covariates and using a quasi-experimental approach. Design: We used a population-based study of children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 (N=609 372) to examine the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions while controlling for measured traits of both parents.Wealso compared siblings differentially exposed to SDP (n=50 339) to account for unmeasured familial factors that could account for the association. Setting: Population-based study of all children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 with information on maternal SDP and offspring criminal convictions based on national registries collected by the Swedish government. Patients or Other Participants: Children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 (N=609 372) and siblings differentially exposed to SDP (n=50 339). Main Outcome Measures: Violent and nonviolent convictions, based on the Swedish National Crime Register, a register with detailed information on all convictions in the country. Results: Moderate (hazard rate [HR], 2.47; 95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 2.34-2.60) and high (HR, 3.43; 95{\%} CI, 3.25-3.63) levels of maternal SDP were associated with an increased risk for offspring violent convictions, even when controlling for maternal and paternal traits. There was no association between SDP and violent convictions, however, when comparing differentially exposed siblings (HRmoderate, 1.02; 95{\%} CI, 0.79-1.30; HRhigh, 1.03; 95{\%} CI, 0.78-1.37). Smoking during pregnancy also was associated with nonviolent convictions in the entire population (HRmoderate, 1.62; 95{\%} CI, 1.58-1.66; HRhigh, 1.87; 95{\%} CI, 1.82-1.92) and when controlling for covariates. But, there was no association when comparing siblings who were differentially exposed (HRmoderate, 0.89; 95{\%} CI, 0.78-1.01; HR high, 0.89; 95{\%} CI, 0.78-1.02). Conclusion: The results suggest that familial background factors account for the association between maternal SDP and criminal convictions, not the specific exposure to SDP.",
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Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminality : A population-based study in Sweden. / D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Iliadou, Anastasia; Lambe, Mats; Hultman, Christina M.; Grann, Martin; Neiderhiser, Jenae Marie; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul.

In: Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 67, No. 5, 01.05.2010, p. 529-538.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminality

T2 - A population-based study in Sweden

AU - D'Onofrio, Brian M.

AU - Singh, Amber L.

AU - Iliadou, Anastasia

AU - Lambe, Mats

AU - Hultman, Christina M.

AU - Grann, Martin

AU - Neiderhiser, Jenae Marie

AU - Långström, Niklas

AU - Lichtenstein, Paul

PY - 2010/5/1

Y1 - 2010/5/1

N2 - Context: The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and offspring disruptive behaviors has been well documented, but it is unclear whether exposure to SDP or the effects of factors correlated with SDP account for the increased risk. Objective: To test whether the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions was consistent with a causal connection or due to familial background factors by controlling for measured covariates and using a quasi-experimental approach. Design: We used a population-based study of children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 (N=609 372) to examine the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions while controlling for measured traits of both parents.Wealso compared siblings differentially exposed to SDP (n=50 339) to account for unmeasured familial factors that could account for the association. Setting: Population-based study of all children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 with information on maternal SDP and offspring criminal convictions based on national registries collected by the Swedish government. Patients or Other Participants: Children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 (N=609 372) and siblings differentially exposed to SDP (n=50 339). Main Outcome Measures: Violent and nonviolent convictions, based on the Swedish National Crime Register, a register with detailed information on all convictions in the country. Results: Moderate (hazard rate [HR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.34-2.60) and high (HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 3.25-3.63) levels of maternal SDP were associated with an increased risk for offspring violent convictions, even when controlling for maternal and paternal traits. There was no association between SDP and violent convictions, however, when comparing differentially exposed siblings (HRmoderate, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.79-1.30; HRhigh, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.78-1.37). Smoking during pregnancy also was associated with nonviolent convictions in the entire population (HRmoderate, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.58-1.66; HRhigh, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.82-1.92) and when controlling for covariates. But, there was no association when comparing siblings who were differentially exposed (HRmoderate, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.01; HR high, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.02). Conclusion: The results suggest that familial background factors account for the association between maternal SDP and criminal convictions, not the specific exposure to SDP.

AB - Context: The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and offspring disruptive behaviors has been well documented, but it is unclear whether exposure to SDP or the effects of factors correlated with SDP account for the increased risk. Objective: To test whether the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions was consistent with a causal connection or due to familial background factors by controlling for measured covariates and using a quasi-experimental approach. Design: We used a population-based study of children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 (N=609 372) to examine the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions while controlling for measured traits of both parents.Wealso compared siblings differentially exposed to SDP (n=50 339) to account for unmeasured familial factors that could account for the association. Setting: Population-based study of all children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 with information on maternal SDP and offspring criminal convictions based on national registries collected by the Swedish government. Patients or Other Participants: Children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 (N=609 372) and siblings differentially exposed to SDP (n=50 339). Main Outcome Measures: Violent and nonviolent convictions, based on the Swedish National Crime Register, a register with detailed information on all convictions in the country. Results: Moderate (hazard rate [HR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.34-2.60) and high (HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 3.25-3.63) levels of maternal SDP were associated with an increased risk for offspring violent convictions, even when controlling for maternal and paternal traits. There was no association between SDP and violent convictions, however, when comparing differentially exposed siblings (HRmoderate, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.79-1.30; HRhigh, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.78-1.37). Smoking during pregnancy also was associated with nonviolent convictions in the entire population (HRmoderate, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.58-1.66; HRhigh, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.82-1.92) and when controlling for covariates. But, there was no association when comparing siblings who were differentially exposed (HRmoderate, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.01; HR high, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.02). Conclusion: The results suggest that familial background factors account for the association between maternal SDP and criminal convictions, not the specific exposure to SDP.

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