Professionals in kinesiology and sport psychology have a wonderful opportunity to foster children's social development because of the importance of sport as an achievement domain for children. Fear of failure (FF) represents one achievement-related conshuct associated with a number of negative outcomes both in and out of the physical activity arena. The present article has three purposes. First, the literature on fear of failure over the past half century is reviewed; a multidimensional model of FF appraisals is recommended for future consideration. Second, research on the development of FF is reviewed with an emphasis on three interpersonal paths of influence: (a) family shucture and climate, (b) parental demands for independence and mastery, and (c) parent-child communications. Research findings are integrated with existing theory to synthesize an attachment-based interpretation of FE. Finally, specific directions for future science-practice efforts loward FF prevention and treatment are discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes