Feeding broiler chicks diets containing keto- and hydroxy-acids: performance and carcass weight

A. Adrizal, P. H. Patterson, C. R. Angel, A. Markant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This study evaluated reduced dietary CP and supplementing amino acid analogs to sustain growth and carcass weight in 0- to 21-day-old Cobb × Avian-48 male broiler chicks. A total of 6 diets with 3 levels of CP (22.5, 19.5, and 16.5%) and 2 sources of AA analogs, either synthetic amino acids (SA) or keto-/hydroxy-acids (KA), were assigned randomly to 36 cages (8 chicks/cage) in a 3 × 2 factorial design. For SA diets, DL-Met, DL-Met + L-Ile, and D-Met + L-Ile + L-Val were used to supplement 22.5, 19.5, and 16.5% CP diets, respectively, and for corresponding KA diets, DL-Met was replaced with methionine hydroxy analog (MHA), L-Ile was replaced with keto-Ile, and L-Val was replaced with keto-Val. Water and all isocaloric diets (3,050 kcal ME/kg) were given ad libitum. Lowering dietary CP to 16.5% reduced BW at 7, 14, and 21 D (P ≤ 0.0001) and feed intake at 8 to 14, 15 to 21, and 0 to 21 D (P ≤ 0.001). Body weight gain (BWG) was reduced and feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) was increased (P ≤ 0.003 to 0.0001) at all times for chicks fed 16.5% CP; however, chicks fed 22.5 and 19.5% CP had comparable performance. Differences in 0 to 7 D BWG (SA, 122.9 vs. KA, 113.9 g/bird; P ≤ 0.04), a 0 to 21 D FGR cumulative effect (1.45 vs. 1.51; P ≤ 0.02), and a 15 to 21 D (P ≤ 0.04) and 0 to 21 D (P ≤ 0.05) CP × AA interaction were also observed. Greater liver weight among 16.5 vs. 19.5 or 22.5% CP fed chicks was found at 14 and 21 D (P ≤ 0.0001 and P = 0.06, respectively). Lower dietary CP reduced spleen weight on day 21 birds (P ≤ 0.0005) with lighter spleens among 16.5 and 19.5% vs. the 22.5% CP fed group (0.090, 0.095, 0.119 g/100 g BW, respectively). Breast weight at 21 D was significantly less for 16.5 vs. 22.5% CP fed chicks. Fat pad weight on day 21 was heaviest among 16.5% chicks (P ≤ 0.0004). Overall, lowering dietary CP to 16.5% had a negative effect, but keto-acid supplementation supported 0 to 21 D broiler growth compared to SA; however, transamination efficiency of KA may be lower for 0 to 7D old chicks compared to older birds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3818-3827
Number of pages10
JournalPoultry science
Volume98
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019

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carcass weight
broiler chickens
chicks
acids
diet
amino acids
birds
cages
spleen
weight gain
methionine hydroxy analog
amino acid derivatives
transamination
keto acids
body weight
breasts
feed intake
liver
lipids
water

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Animal Science and Zoology

Cite this

Adrizal, A. ; Patterson, P. H. ; Angel, C. R. ; Markant, A. / Feeding broiler chicks diets containing keto- and hydroxy-acids : performance and carcass weight. In: Poultry science. 2019 ; Vol. 98, No. 9. pp. 3818-3827.
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title = "Feeding broiler chicks diets containing keto- and hydroxy-acids: performance and carcass weight",
abstract = "This study evaluated reduced dietary CP and supplementing amino acid analogs to sustain growth and carcass weight in 0- to 21-day-old Cobb × Avian-48 male broiler chicks. A total of 6 diets with 3 levels of CP (22.5, 19.5, and 16.5{\%}) and 2 sources of AA analogs, either synthetic amino acids (SA) or keto-/hydroxy-acids (KA), were assigned randomly to 36 cages (8 chicks/cage) in a 3 × 2 factorial design. For SA diets, DL-Met, DL-Met + L-Ile, and D-Met + L-Ile + L-Val were used to supplement 22.5, 19.5, and 16.5{\%} CP diets, respectively, and for corresponding KA diets, DL-Met was replaced with methionine hydroxy analog (MHA), L-Ile was replaced with keto-Ile, and L-Val was replaced with keto-Val. Water and all isocaloric diets (3,050 kcal ME/kg) were given ad libitum. Lowering dietary CP to 16.5{\%} reduced BW at 7, 14, and 21 D (P ≤ 0.0001) and feed intake at 8 to 14, 15 to 21, and 0 to 21 D (P ≤ 0.001). Body weight gain (BWG) was reduced and feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) was increased (P ≤ 0.003 to 0.0001) at all times for chicks fed 16.5{\%} CP; however, chicks fed 22.5 and 19.5{\%} CP had comparable performance. Differences in 0 to 7 D BWG (SA, 122.9 vs. KA, 113.9 g/bird; P ≤ 0.04), a 0 to 21 D FGR cumulative effect (1.45 vs. 1.51; P ≤ 0.02), and a 15 to 21 D (P ≤ 0.04) and 0 to 21 D (P ≤ 0.05) CP × AA interaction were also observed. Greater liver weight among 16.5 vs. 19.5 or 22.5{\%} CP fed chicks was found at 14 and 21 D (P ≤ 0.0001 and P = 0.06, respectively). Lower dietary CP reduced spleen weight on day 21 birds (P ≤ 0.0005) with lighter spleens among 16.5 and 19.5{\%} vs. the 22.5{\%} CP fed group (0.090, 0.095, 0.119 g/100 g BW, respectively). Breast weight at 21 D was significantly less for 16.5 vs. 22.5{\%} CP fed chicks. Fat pad weight on day 21 was heaviest among 16.5{\%} chicks (P ≤ 0.0004). Overall, lowering dietary CP to 16.5{\%} had a negative effect, but keto-acid supplementation supported 0 to 21 D broiler growth compared to SA; however, transamination efficiency of KA may be lower for 0 to 7D old chicks compared to older birds.",
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Feeding broiler chicks diets containing keto- and hydroxy-acids : performance and carcass weight. / Adrizal, A.; Patterson, P. H.; Angel, C. R.; Markant, A.

In: Poultry science, Vol. 98, No. 9, 01.09.2019, p. 3818-3827.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Feeding broiler chicks diets containing keto- and hydroxy-acids

T2 - performance and carcass weight

AU - Adrizal, A.

AU - Patterson, P. H.

AU - Angel, C. R.

AU - Markant, A.

PY - 2019/9/1

Y1 - 2019/9/1

N2 - This study evaluated reduced dietary CP and supplementing amino acid analogs to sustain growth and carcass weight in 0- to 21-day-old Cobb × Avian-48 male broiler chicks. A total of 6 diets with 3 levels of CP (22.5, 19.5, and 16.5%) and 2 sources of AA analogs, either synthetic amino acids (SA) or keto-/hydroxy-acids (KA), were assigned randomly to 36 cages (8 chicks/cage) in a 3 × 2 factorial design. For SA diets, DL-Met, DL-Met + L-Ile, and D-Met + L-Ile + L-Val were used to supplement 22.5, 19.5, and 16.5% CP diets, respectively, and for corresponding KA diets, DL-Met was replaced with methionine hydroxy analog (MHA), L-Ile was replaced with keto-Ile, and L-Val was replaced with keto-Val. Water and all isocaloric diets (3,050 kcal ME/kg) were given ad libitum. Lowering dietary CP to 16.5% reduced BW at 7, 14, and 21 D (P ≤ 0.0001) and feed intake at 8 to 14, 15 to 21, and 0 to 21 D (P ≤ 0.001). Body weight gain (BWG) was reduced and feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) was increased (P ≤ 0.003 to 0.0001) at all times for chicks fed 16.5% CP; however, chicks fed 22.5 and 19.5% CP had comparable performance. Differences in 0 to 7 D BWG (SA, 122.9 vs. KA, 113.9 g/bird; P ≤ 0.04), a 0 to 21 D FGR cumulative effect (1.45 vs. 1.51; P ≤ 0.02), and a 15 to 21 D (P ≤ 0.04) and 0 to 21 D (P ≤ 0.05) CP × AA interaction were also observed. Greater liver weight among 16.5 vs. 19.5 or 22.5% CP fed chicks was found at 14 and 21 D (P ≤ 0.0001 and P = 0.06, respectively). Lower dietary CP reduced spleen weight on day 21 birds (P ≤ 0.0005) with lighter spleens among 16.5 and 19.5% vs. the 22.5% CP fed group (0.090, 0.095, 0.119 g/100 g BW, respectively). Breast weight at 21 D was significantly less for 16.5 vs. 22.5% CP fed chicks. Fat pad weight on day 21 was heaviest among 16.5% chicks (P ≤ 0.0004). Overall, lowering dietary CP to 16.5% had a negative effect, but keto-acid supplementation supported 0 to 21 D broiler growth compared to SA; however, transamination efficiency of KA may be lower for 0 to 7D old chicks compared to older birds.

AB - This study evaluated reduced dietary CP and supplementing amino acid analogs to sustain growth and carcass weight in 0- to 21-day-old Cobb × Avian-48 male broiler chicks. A total of 6 diets with 3 levels of CP (22.5, 19.5, and 16.5%) and 2 sources of AA analogs, either synthetic amino acids (SA) or keto-/hydroxy-acids (KA), were assigned randomly to 36 cages (8 chicks/cage) in a 3 × 2 factorial design. For SA diets, DL-Met, DL-Met + L-Ile, and D-Met + L-Ile + L-Val were used to supplement 22.5, 19.5, and 16.5% CP diets, respectively, and for corresponding KA diets, DL-Met was replaced with methionine hydroxy analog (MHA), L-Ile was replaced with keto-Ile, and L-Val was replaced with keto-Val. Water and all isocaloric diets (3,050 kcal ME/kg) were given ad libitum. Lowering dietary CP to 16.5% reduced BW at 7, 14, and 21 D (P ≤ 0.0001) and feed intake at 8 to 14, 15 to 21, and 0 to 21 D (P ≤ 0.001). Body weight gain (BWG) was reduced and feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) was increased (P ≤ 0.003 to 0.0001) at all times for chicks fed 16.5% CP; however, chicks fed 22.5 and 19.5% CP had comparable performance. Differences in 0 to 7 D BWG (SA, 122.9 vs. KA, 113.9 g/bird; P ≤ 0.04), a 0 to 21 D FGR cumulative effect (1.45 vs. 1.51; P ≤ 0.02), and a 15 to 21 D (P ≤ 0.04) and 0 to 21 D (P ≤ 0.05) CP × AA interaction were also observed. Greater liver weight among 16.5 vs. 19.5 or 22.5% CP fed chicks was found at 14 and 21 D (P ≤ 0.0001 and P = 0.06, respectively). Lower dietary CP reduced spleen weight on day 21 birds (P ≤ 0.0005) with lighter spleens among 16.5 and 19.5% vs. the 22.5% CP fed group (0.090, 0.095, 0.119 g/100 g BW, respectively). Breast weight at 21 D was significantly less for 16.5 vs. 22.5% CP fed chicks. Fat pad weight on day 21 was heaviest among 16.5% chicks (P ≤ 0.0004). Overall, lowering dietary CP to 16.5% had a negative effect, but keto-acid supplementation supported 0 to 21 D broiler growth compared to SA; however, transamination efficiency of KA may be lower for 0 to 7D old chicks compared to older birds.

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